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Introduction to Biology. What are the characteristics of living things?. The science of “LIFE”. BIOLOGY =__________________ = ________________. Study of living things. Bacteria. It’s Alive!. Characteristics of ALL LIVING THINGS. ______________________________

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introduction to biology
Introduction to Biology

What are the characteristics of living things?

slide2

The science of “LIFE”

BIOLOGY

=__________________

= ________________

Study of living things

Bacteria

characteristics of all living things
Characteristics of ALL LIVING THINGS
  • ______________________________
  • ______________________________
  • ______________________________
  • _____________________________
  • ______________________________
  • ______________________________
  • ______________________________
  • ______________________________

Reproduce

Made of cells.

Based on universal genetic code

Grow and develop

Obtain and use materials & energy

Respond to their environment

Maintain a stable internal environment

As a group, change over time

all living things are made of cells
ALL LIVING THINGS ARE: Made of cells

The _____ is the

______________.

CELL

basic unit of life

http://sps.k12.ar.us/massengale/study_guides_bi.htm

all living things are made of cells6
ALL LIVING THINGS ARE: Made of cells

UNICELLULAR

____________organisms are _____________

made of only 1 cell

bacteria

(Ex: _________)

Image from: http://www.agen.ufl.edu/~chyn/age2062/lect/lect_06/bacsiz.GIF

all living things are made of cells7
ALL LIVING THINGS ARE: Made of cells

MULTICELLULAR

_________________ organisms_______ as _________ but as adults are

_________________________

Ex: (___________

__________ )

BEGIN

ONE CELL

MADE OF MANY CELLS

a human

a tree

Images from:

http://www.angelbabygifts.com/

http://www.inclusive.co.uk/downloads/images/pics2/tree.gif

all living things reproduce
ALL LIVING THINGSReproduce

SEXUAL REPRODUCTION

________________________

_____________the

___________________

from _____________

________________

Seen in animals and plants

combines

genetic material

2 parents

sperm + egg = baby

Family image from: http://babyhearing.org/Parenet2Parent/index.asp

all living things reproduce9
ALL LIVING THINGSReproduce

ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION

_________________________

makes a new organism

using the

________________

from

_________________

Seen in bacteria, plants, and some animals

genetic material

ONLY 1 PARENT

Planaria animation: http://www.t3.rim.or.jp/~hylas/planaria/title.htm

slide10
All living things share a universal genetic code

Hereditary material = DNA

______________________

DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID

Segment of DNA

________________ with instructions for one _________

is called a ________.

PROTEIN

GENE

Image from: http://sbchem.sunysb.edu/msl/dna.gif

image by riedell

ALL LIVING THINGS

Grow & develop

Image by Riedell

SINGLE CELLED

In _____________ organisms, like a bacterium, growth is mostly a simple ________________.

INCREASE in SIZE

image by riedell12

ALL LIVING THINGS

Grow & develop

Image by Riedell

Image from: http://www.bcps.org/offices/lis/models/life/images/grow.JPG

Multicellular organisms grow bigger by __________________

AND _____________________.

increasing cell size

increasing cell number

slide14

DIFFERENT KINDS

DIFFERENT FUNCTIONS

MULTICELLULAR ORGANISM don’t just contain MANY CELLS… but many _______________ of cells with _____________________

Image from: http://www.isscr.org/images/ES-cell-Fig-2.jpg

slide15

PROCESS OF CHANGING

The ________________ EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS into different looking ADULT cells doing different jobs =

__________________________

DIFFERENTIATION

Image from: http://www.ncu.edu.tw/~ls/graph/faculty_pictures/whole_time/SLC/SLC_lab-1.jpg

slide16

All cells have the SAME DNA...

_________________________

what makes them ___________ is

_______________ are _______________________

different

WHICH GENES

TURNED ON or OFF

See end of show for image sources

slide17
It’s like having a whole library full of books, but reading only the books that are important to you.

http://school.discovery.com/clipart/clip/report2.html

http://www.adc.state.az.us/programs/offlibsvs.html

slide18

grow and develop

To________________,organisms _______ a constant supply of

____________________ &

____________

need

ALL LIVING THINGSTake in Materials & Use Energy

BUILDING MATERIALS

ENERGY!

This sheep uses the

MOLECULES and ENERGY

in the food it eats to

make “more sheep”

http://ag.ansc.purdue.edu/sheep/ansc442/Semprojs/2003/spiderlamb/eatsheep.gif

all living things take in materials use energy
ALL LIVING THINGSTake in Materials & Use Energy

AUTOTROPHS

___________ use energy from sunlight or chemicals to ________________

make their own food

Image from: http://vilenski.org/science/safari/cellstructure/chloroplasts.html

GREEN PLANTS

Ex: _____________ use ____________to turn

_________ into _________

photosynthesis

glucose

sunlight

http://www.inclusive.co.uk/downloads/images/pics2/tree.gif

all living things take in materials use energy20
ALL LIVING THINGSTake in Materials & Use Energy

______________

get their energy by

___________________

HETEROTROPHS

consuming other organisms

Animals

Ex: ________ (including you) and _________________

most bacteria

 Image from: http://www.epa.gov/region5/superfund/ecology/images/fishcartoon.gif

vocab word
Vocab word

chemical reactions

the combination of all the _________________ through which an organism ________ or ___________ materials as it carries out its life processes

= ___________________

builds up

breaks down

metabolism

all living things respond to their environment
ALL LIVING THINGSRespond to their environment

A signal to which an organism responds

= ___________________

STIMULUS

 Image from: http://www.travel-net.com/~andrews/images/animations/traffic.gif

all living things respond to their environment23
ALL LIVING THINGSRespond to their environment

 Image from: http://www.ccs.k12.in.us/chsBS/kons/kons/images/stimresp.jpg

A stimulus can be

_________________

EXTERNAL

Ex: When there is enough water

and ground is warm enough,

seed germinates. Roots respond to

gravity & grow downward.Leaves respond to sunlight & grow up.

http://www.nofretete-page.de/gemischtNeu/TN_plant_grow_w.JPG

all living things respond to their environment24
ALL LIVING THINGSRespond to their environment

http://www.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookCHEM2.html

A stimulus can be

____________

INTERNAL

Ex: When the glucose level in your bloodstream becomes low, your body responds by making you feel hungry.

http://www.israellycool.com/eat%20guy%20AFP.jpg

vocab word25
VOCAB WORD

A cell works to keep conditions inside the cell constant = ______________________

IF temperature, water content, nutrients, acidity change too much

. . . the cell will die.

HOMEOSTASIS

slide26

FEEDBACK

HOMEOSTASIS involvesinternal __________ mechanisms

If body temp drops too low,

“shivering” produces

heat to warm you up.

If temp is too hot, “sweating” cools you down.

http://www.dreamstime.com/thumb_4/1099235658Q3A4x8.jpg

http://www.clipartheaven.com/clipart/seasons_&_weather/overheating_2.gif

homeostasis
HOMEOSTASIS

Drinking a BIG GULP

increases the amount

of water in your body

http://www.me-go.net/rtw/images/biggulp.jpg

Your next stop gets rid of the excess water.

(OSMOREGULATION)

http://pluck.typepad.com/photos/uncategorized/restroom_blog.gif

all living things as a group change over time
ALL LIVING THINGSas a group, change over time

EVOLUTION

= ______________

Allows _______ of ________ in a ___________

survival

species

changing world

http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=63386&rendTypeId=4

slide29

http://brookings.k12.sd.us/biology/intro.htm#WORKSHEETS/HANDOUTShttp://brookings.k12.sd.us/biology/intro.htm#WORKSHEETS/HANDOUTS