Early Language Development Birth to 3 years Myrna Ramirez, MA, CCC-SLP Speech-Language Pathologist
Receptive Language • Ability to understand spoken language • Responding to sounds/voices • Understanding labels/words • Following Directions • Pointing to Pictures
Expressive Language • Ability to communicate with others • Facial expressions • Sounds • Gestures • Words
Articulation • Ability to produce speech sounds • Vowels, consonants • Consonant-vowel combinations • Clarity of speech
Stages of Language Learning I. Vocalizations II. Word Play/Labeling III. Sentence Play
Video (Stages of Language Stimulation)
Facilitating Language Development Vocalization-Sound Play Talk with child face-to-face interaction. Imitate the child’s “speech” sounds. Make new sounds for the child to imitate. Interact to get a “dialogue” going. Order for introducing new sounds: a. single vowels and consonants b. repetitive syllables (ba-ba, ga-ga) c. syllable combinations (ba-da, ka-gi)
Facilitating Language Development II. Words: Labeling Play Name things the child spontaneously looks at and/or touches. Draw the child’s attention to and name things. Order in which to introduce parts of speech: Small familiar objects (nouns): hand, cup, ball Concrete actions (verbs): touch, kiss, “up” c. Prepositions: in, out, on, off d. Adjectives: big, little
Facilitating Language Development III. Phrase/Sentence Play Combine words into phrases using early semantic relationships: Agent + action (noun + verb)= Daddy eat. Mommy throw. Action + object (verb + noun)= Eat cookie. Play ball. Agent + object (noun + noun)= Daddy shoe. Mommy hat. Attribute + object (modifier + noun)= Big shoe.
Principles of Language Interaction • Interact with child • Face to face interaction • Relate personally to the child • Adapt to child’s style • Focus on timing and precision in labeling
Principles of Language Interaction • Make language meaningful • Use a variety of examples • Adapt your language to your child’s level and rate of understanding • Use clear speech
Principles of Language Interaction • Engage the child in play • Encourage child to explore and manipulate toys and other things, labeling and talking about them as you play. • Involve child in language interaction through social play, manipulating toys as if they were alive.
Video (Activities and Settings)
Activities to Promote Language • Toy Play • Label toys and common objects during play. • Parallel Talk: Provide language to describe the child’s play • Daily Care Routines • Label clothes, body parts and actions during daily routines such as: dressing, bathing, mealtime and bedtime
Activities to Promote Language • Looking at Pictures in Books and Magazines Teaches children that pictures represent objects. • Home-made books • Simple text, few pictures • Repetitive text • Music and Nursery Rhymes • Rhythm and movement • Vocabulary development
Activities To Promote Language • Excursions • Indoor There are plenty of different things to point out in the various living areas in the home to enrich a child’s vocabulary. • Outdoor Visits to the yard or around the neighborhood.
What Can You Expect? Responds to sounds Responds to name Waves bye-bye Points to/gives objects Follows commands Babbles/vocalizes Imitates sounds Says some words What Can You Do? Look at child & imitate vocalizations Teach child to imitate actions Talk to child about everything you are doing Reward/encourage child’s effort to vocalize Language Development0 to 12 months
What Can You Expect? Identifies objects Identifies pictures Identifies body parts Follows 2-step related commands Labels objects/pictures Responds to questions Combines 2-words What Can You Do? Read books Talk simply, clearly and slowly Repeat new words over and over Use language during daily routines Language Development1 to 2 years
What Can You Expect? Identifies actions Understands size concepts Identifies objects by function Huge increase in vocabulary Answers questions Using short sentences What Can You Do? Read books daily Sing songs Show interest in what you child has to say Describe what you are doing/planning/thinking Ask child simple questions Expand what you child says Language Development2 to 3 years
References:Fowler, W. (1995). Talking from infancy. How to nurture and cultivate early language development. Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books.