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Microsoft Office 2007 – Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

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  1. Microsoft Office 2007 – Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition Understanding Essential Computer Concepts

  2. Objectives • Investigate types of computers • Examine computer systems • Examine input devices • Examine output devices • Investigate data processing • Understand memory Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

  3. Objectives • Understand storage media • Explore data communications • Learn about networks • Learn about security threats • Understand system software • Understand application software Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

  4. Defining Computers • A computer is an electronic device that: • accepts input • processes data • stores data • produces output Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

  5. Investigating Types of Computers The categories of computers are: • Personal computers • Desktop • Notebook (Laptop) • Tablet PC • Hand-helds • PDAs • MP3 players • Cell phones • Mainframes • Supercomputers Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

  6. Investigating Types of Computers Personalcomputers are used for general computing tasks. Hand-heldcomputers fit in the palm of your hand and run on batteries. Mainframes are used by companies to provide centralized storage, processing, and management for large amounts of data. Supercomputers are the largest and fastest of computers, and can process an enormous volume of data. Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

  7. Investigating Types of Computers • Notebook computer • also referred to as a laptop computer • small • lightweight • portable Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

  8. Investigating Types of Computers • PDAs • personal digital assistants • generally used to maintain an electronic appointment book, address book, calculator, and notepad Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

  9. Investigating Types of Computers Supercomputers are the largest and fastest of computers, and can process an enormous volume of data. Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

  10. Understanding Terminals • Terminal • has a keyboard for input • monitor for output • processes little or no data on its own • Terminal emulator • personal computer, workstation, or server • uses special software to imitate a terminal • allows the PC to communicate with he mainframe or supercomputer Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

  11. Examining Computer Systems A computer system is made up of: • Hardware—the physical components • Software—the programs or lists of instructions Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

  12. Examining Computer Systems • Architecture or configuration is the design of the computer. • As in, what does the computer consist of? • Specifications are the technical details about each component. • As in, how big is the monitor? Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

  13. Examining Computer Systems • Data • The words, numbers, figures, sounds, and graphics that describe people, events, things, and ideas • Processing • Modifying data Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

  14. Examining Computer Systems • Motherboard • where processing tasks occur • located inside the computer • the main electronic component of the computer • contains the CPU Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

  15. Examining Computer Systems • The data you type into the computer is called input. • The result of the computer processing your input is called output. • Peripheral devices accomplish the input, output, and storage functions. Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

  16. Examining Computer Systems • Microprocessor • a silicon chip designed to manipulate data • its speed is determined by: • Clock speed • Word size • Processor type Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

  17. Examining Input Devices Some input devices are: • Keyboard • Mouse • Trackball • Touch pad • Pointing stick • Scanner • Microphones Cordless mouse Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

  18. Using Assistive Devices • People who cannot use their arms or hands instead can use foot, head, or eye movements to control the pointer. • People with poor vision can use keyboards with large keys for input, screen enlargers to enlarge the type and images on the monitor, or screen readers to read the content of the screen aloud. Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

  19. Examining Output Devices • Monitors and printers are common output devices. • CRT monitors and flat panel monitors are two types of monitors. Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

  20. Examining Output Devices Factors that influence a monitor’s quality are: • Screen Size • Resolution • Dot Pitch Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

  21. Examining Output Devices • Types of printers • Laser • Dot Matrix • Inkjet Inkjetprinter Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

  22. Investigating Data Processing • A computer file is a named collection of stored data. • An executable file contains the instructions that tell a computer how to perform a specific task; for instance, the files that are used while the computer starts are executable. • A data file is created by a user, usually with software. Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

  23. Investigating Data Processing • Computers interpret every signal as “on” or “off.” • 1 (“on”) and 0 (“off”) are referred to as bits. • Eight bits is a byte. Each byte represents a unique character. Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

  24. Investigating Data Processing • Kilobyte (KB) = one thousand bytes • Megabyte (MB) = one million bytes • Gigabyte (GB) = one billion bytes • Terabyte (TB) = one trillion bytes Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

  25. Investigating Data Processing • Each ASCII number represents an English character • Computers that run the Windows operating system use the set of Extended ASCII definitions defined by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). ANSI standard sample ASCII code Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

  26. Understanding Memory • Computer memory is a set of storage locations on the motherboard. • There are five types of memory: • Random access memory (RAM) • Cache memory • Virtual memory • Read-only memory • Complementary metal oxide semiconductor memory (CMOS) Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

  27. Understanding Memory • RAM • Temporary memory that is constantly changing while the computer is on. • Also called volatile memory and temporary memory. • Cache memory • Special high-speed memory chip on the motherboard or CPU • Stores frequently and recently accessed data and commands. Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

  28. Understanding Memory • Virtual memory is extra memory that simulates RAM if more is needed. • Read-only memory (ROM) is the permanent storage location for a set of instructions the computer uses. • CMOS memory is semi-permanent information about where essential software is stored. Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

  29. Understanding Storage Media • Magnetic storage devices • Store data as magnetized particles on mylar, which is then coated on both sides with a magnetic oxide coating Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

  30. Understanding Storage Media • Common magnetic storage devices • hard disks—several magnetic oxide covered metal platters usually sealed in a case inside the computer • tape—inexpensive, slow, archival storage for large companies who need to back up large quantities of data. • floppy disks—flat circles of magnetic oxide-coated mylar enclosed in a hard plastic case; almost obsolete Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

  31. Understanding Storage Media • Optical storage devices • polycarbonate discs coated with a reflective metal on which data is recorded using laser technology as a trail of tiny pits or dark spots in the surface of the disc • the data that these pits or spots represent can then be “read” with a beam of laser light Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

  32. Understanding Storage Media • Types of optical storage devices • CD—can store 700 MB of data • DVD—can store between 4.7 and 15.9 GB of data • Blu-ray discs and HD-DVD can store between 15 and 50 GB of data Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

  33. Understanding Storage Media • Flash memory—similar to ROM except that it can be written to more than once. • Flash memory cards • small, portable cards encased in hard plastic to which data can be written and rewritten • used in digital cameras, handheld computers, video game controllers, and other devices Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

  34. Understanding Storage Media • USB flash storage device(USB drive, flash drive) • popular type of flash memory • available in a wide range of sizes from 32 MB to 16 GB • plug directly into the USB port of a personal computer • are about the size of a pack of gum and often have a ring that you can attach to your key chain. Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

  35. Erasing and Rewriting on CDs and DVDs • CD-ROMs are for “read-only” access. • CD-R drives allow you to record data on a CD-R disk. • CD-RW drives allow you to write data on a CD-RW disk and access and modify data. • DVD-R and DVD+R are recordable. Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

  36. Exploring Data Communications Data communications is the transmission of text, numeric, voice, or video data from one computer to another. The four essential components of data communications are: • Sender • Channel • Receiver • Protocols Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

  37. Exploring Data Communications • A sender is the computer that originates the message. • The message is sent over a channel, such as a telephone. • The receiver is the computer at the message’s destination. • Protocols are the rules that establish the transfer of data between sender and receiver. Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

  38. Exploring Data Communications • Device driver (or simply driver) • handles the transmission protocol between a computer and its peripheral devices • a computer program that can establish communication because it contains information about the characteristics of your computer and of the device • Data bus • the data path between the microprocessor, RAM, and the peripherals along which communication travels Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

  39. Exploring Data Communications Components needed to connect a printer to a computer Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

  40. Exploring Data Communications PCs have several types of ports: • Parallel • Serial • SCSI • USB • MIDI • Ethernet Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

  41. Exploring Data Communications • Parallel port—transmits data eight bits at a time • Serial port—transmits data one bit at a time • SCSI (small computer system interface, pronounced “scuzzy”) port—provides an interface for one or more peripheral devices at the same port • USB (Universal Serial Bus) port—a high-speed serial port which allows multiple connections at the same port Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

  42. Exploring Data Communications • Sound card port—usually includes jacks for speakers and a microphone, which are designed to work with a MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface, pronounced “middy”) card • Ethernet port—used to connect to another computer, a LAN, a modem, or sometimes directly to the Internet; allows data to be transmitted at high speeds. Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

  43. Exploring Data Communications Power connection Computer ports and connections Mouse port Keyboard port Audio connection Monitor port FireWire port USB ports Network port Speaker and microphone connections Phone line connection Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

  44. Learning about Networks • Network • connects one computer to other computers and peripheral devices • Network interface card (NIC) • creates a communications channel between the computer and the network • a cable connects the NIC port to the network • Network software • establishes the communications protocols that will be observed on the network • controls the traffic flow of data traveling through the network Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

  45. Learning about Networks • Server • acts as the central storage location for programs • provides mass storage for most of the data used on the network • Client—computers on a network dependent on a server • Client/server network—a network with server that acts as the central storage location • Peer-to-peer network • a network without a server • all of the computers are equal Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

  46. Learning about Networks • Standalone computer—a personal computer that is not connected to a network • Workstation—a personal computer that is connected to a network • Node—any device connected to the network Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

  47. Learning about Networks Server Workstation Printer Workstation Your local workstation Network configuration Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

  48. Learning about Networks • LAN (local area network) • computers and peripherals located close to each other • WAN (wide area network) • more than one LAN connected together • the Internet is the largest example of a WAN • WLAN (wireless local area network) • computers and peripherals that use high-frequency radio waves instead of wires to communicate and connect in a network • Wi-Fi (wireless fidelity) describes WLANs connected using a standard radio frequency established by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

  49. Learning about Networks • PAN (personal area network)—a network that allows two or more devices located close to each other to communicate or to connect a device to the Internet • infrared technology—uses infrared light waves to beam data from one device to another • Bluetooth—uses short range radio waves to connect a device wirelessly to another device or to the Internet • WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) • allows computers to connect over many miles to a LAN • a WiMAX tower sends signals to a WiMAX receiver built or plugged into a computer Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition

  50. Learning about Networks Analog signal Digital signal Digital signal Modem Modem Sending site Receiving site Using modems to send and receive data Microsoft Office 2007-Illustrated Introductory, Windows Vista Edition