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Communication and Navigation Systems. Christina DeLorenzo Joe Ferrante Senior Design Team 2 September 28, 2006. Navigation. “If you don’t know where you’re going how do you know when you’ve gotten there?” Yes, this is the most important part of the aircraft!!!. Navigation – The essentials.

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communication and navigation systems

Communication and Navigation Systems

Christina DeLorenzo

Joe Ferrante

Senior Design

Team 2

September 28, 2006

navigation
Navigation

“If you don’t know where you’re going how do you know when you’ve gotten there?”

Yes, this is the most important part of the aircraft!!!

navigation the essentials
Navigation – The essentials
  • Sec. 25.1303 - Flight and navigation instruments.
  • (a) The following flight and navigation instruments must be installed so that the instrument is visible from each pilot station:
  • (1) A free air temperature indicator or an air-temperature indicator which provides indications that are convertible to free-air temperature.
  • (2) A clock displaying hours, minutes, and seconds with a sweep-second pointer or digital presentation.
  • (3) A direction indicator (nonstabilized magnetic compass).
  • (b) The following flight and navigation instruments must be installed at each pilot station:
  • (1) An airspeed indicator. If airspeed limitations vary with altitude, the indicator must have a maximum allowable airspeed indicator showing the variation of VMO with altitude.
  • (2) An altimeter (sensitive).
  • (3) A rate-of-climb indicator (vertical speed).
  • (4) A gyroscopic rate-of-turn indicator combined with an integral slip-skid indicator (turn-and-bank indicator) except that only a slip-skid indicator is required on large airplanes with a third attitude instrument system useable through flight attitudes of 360° of pitch and roll and installed in accordance with §121.305(k) of this title.
  • (5) A bank and pitch indicator (gyroscopically stabilized).
  • (6) A direction indicator (gyroscopically stabilized, magnetic or nonmagnetic).
navigation1
Navigation

*Combined Nav/Com system

**Electronic Flight Instrument System

***NDB/ADF units usually combined with other navaids

radio communications
Radio Communications
  • FAR 25.1307 requires:
    • Two systems for two-way radio communications, with controls for each accessible from each pilot station, designed and installed so that failure of one system will not preclude operation of the other system. The use of a common antenna system is acceptable if adequate reliability is shown.
  • Radios operate from 3KHz-3GHz
  • High Frequency (3-30MHz)
    • For communicating over 1000 miles or more
  • Very High Frequency (30-300 MHz)/Ultra High Frequency (300MHz-3 GHz)
    • Communicate with things in line of sight
    • Control Towers
    • Other aircraft
  • AN-ARC(210) commonly used (30-512MHz)
    • C-17, C-130 use
    • LOS or SATCOM
    • Weight about 30 lbs.

http://www.rockwellcollins.com/products/gov/defense_comm/radio-communications/vhf-uhf/page6876.html

http://www.rockwellcollins.com/products/gov/defense_comm/radio-communications/hf/index.html

software defined radio sdr
Software Defined Radio (SDR)
  • Next Generation Tactical Radios
  • Joint Tactical Radio Systems (JTRS)
    • Voice, Data, Video
    • Family of radios for all services
      • Interoperable, affordable and scaleable
    • Current systems have insufficient bandwidth
    • Open system architecture

http://www.rockwellcollins.com/products/gov/defense_comm/sdr/jtrs/index.html

identification systems
Identification Systems
  • Electronic system that helps identify other aircraft as friend or foe (IFF)
  • FAA requires all aircraft that fly above 10,000 ft to have IFF
  • IFF Transponders have multiple modes
    • 1,2,3,A,4,5,C,S
    • Modes 1,2,4,5 are military only
    • Provides altitude, mission codes, ID codes
  • Raytheon AN/APX-100 Transponder used in many platforms
    • Including C-17, C-130

http://www.raytheon.com/products/apx100_v/

common iff system specs
Common IFF System Specs
  • IFF Transponders allow military to identify friendly forces, multiple systems to identify aircraft
  • Combined Interrogator/Transponder houses this in one system
sources
Sources
  • http://www.rockwellcollins.com/ecat/gs/Communication_Systems.html?smenu=101
  • http://www.rockwellcollins.com/products/gov/defense_comm/index.html
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Identification_friend_or_foe
  • http://www.dean-boys.com/extras/iff/iffqa.html
  • http://www.nsd.es.northropgrumman.com/Automated/products/AN_APX_121_V_Mode_S_Mark_XII_IFF_Transponder.html
  • http://www.rockwellcollins.com/ecat/gs/AN_ARC-220.html#N17632
  • http://www.nsd.es.northropgrumman.com/Automated/products/APX-109.html
  • http://www.raytheon.com/products/apx100_v/
  • http://www.honeywell.com/sites/aero/Communication_Navigation_Systems.htm
  • http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=ecfr;sid=36fd560a49716dba377e730b9a4fedda;rgn=div8;view=text;node=14%3A1.0.1.3.11.6.192.4;idno=14;cc=ecfr
  • http://www.centennialofflight.gov/essay/Evolution_of_Technology/navigation_tech/Tech33.htm
  • http://www.centennialofflight.gov/essay/Dictionary/Inertial_Nav_System/DI102.htm
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inertial_navigation
  • http://www.nsd.es.northropgrumman.com/Automated/sitemap/index.html
  • http://www.risingup.com/fars/exec/FARsearch.cgi
  • http://www.avionix.com/movmap.html
  • https://www3.bendixking.com/static/catalog/index.jsp
  • http://www.gaservingamerica.org/how_work/work_navigation.htm
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instrument_flight_rules