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Chapter Thirteen. Individuals with Physical Disabilities, Health Disabilities, and Related Low- Incidence Disabilities. Federal Definitions Pertaining to Physical or Health Disabilities and Deaf-Blindness. Examples of Physical and Health Disabilities. Brief History of the Field.

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chapter thirteen

Chapter Thirteen

Individuals with Physical Disabilities, Health Disabilities, and Related Low- Incidence Disabilities

brief history of the field
Brief History of the Field
  • Early history
  • Middle Ages
  • 1890: First U.S. institution for children with physical disabilities (Industrial School for Crippled and Deformed Children), Boston
  • Emergence of public education
prevalence of physical disabilities health disabilities and related low incidence disabilities
Prevalence of Physical Disabilities, Health Disabilities, and Related Low-Incidence Disabilities

School-age children receiving special education by disability category (U.S. Department of Education):

  • Orthopedic impairments (63,127 children)
  • Multiple disabilities (133,914 children)
  • Traumatic brain injury (23,509 children)
  • Other health impairments (561,028 children)
etiology of physical disabilities health disabilities and related low incidence disabilities
Etiology of Physical Disabilities, Health Disabilities, and Related Low-Incidence Disabilities
  • Genetic and chromosomal defects
    • Muscular dystrophy, sickle cell anemia, hemophilia, cystic fibrosis, deaf-blindness
  • Teratogenic causes
    • Fetal alcohol syndrome, syphilis, rubella, herpes
  • Prematurity and pregnancy complications
    • Neurological conditions, cerebral palsy, vision or hearing loss
  • Acquired causes
    • Traumatic brain injury (TBI), meningitis
categories of students with orthopedic impairments
Categories of Studentswith Orthopedic Impairments
  • Neuromotor impairments
    • Damage to the brain, spinal cord, or nerves
    • Cerebral palsy (CP), spina bifida
  • Degenerative diseases
    • Affects muscles and motor development
    • Muscular dystrophy (MD)
  • Musculoskeletal disorders
    • Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), limb deficiency
definition of students with multiple disabilities
Definition of Studentswith Multiple Disabilities

Multiple Disabilities is an umbrella term that refers to individuals with concomitant impairments whose needs cannot be met in a special education program designed solely for one impairment. Examples:

  • Intellectual disabilities and spina bifida
  • Cerebral palsy and seizures
  • Muscular dystrophy and behavior disorders
students with traumatic brain injury tbi
Students with Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)
  • Acquired brain injury
    • Often mild, varies by area of brain injury
    • May impair cognition and social/behavioral functioning
  • Added as a separate disability category under IDEA in 1990
  • Often requires rehabilitative services
students with other health impairments ohi
Students with Other Health Impairments (OHI)

Major Health Impairments

  • Seizure Disorders
    • Absence seizures (formerly petit-mal)
      • Loss of consciousness, appears trancelike
    • Complex partial seizure
      • Impaired consciousness, involuntary movements
    • Tonic-clonic seizures (formerly grand-mal)
      • Convulsive seizure, loss of consciousness
  • Asthma
    • Medication, avoid triggers
students with other health impairments ohi continued
Students with Other Health Impairments (OHI), continued

Infectious Diseases

  • Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
    • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) destroys immune system

Students with Deaf-Blindness

    • Students with deaf-blindness may exhibit cognitive deficits (65%), physical impairments (58%), or complex health needs (41%)
classroom suggestions
Classroom Suggestions

Teacher Actions if a Tonic-Clonic Seizure Occurs:

  • Stay calm
  • Move furniture
  • Loosen shirt collar
  • Place pillow under head
  • Turn student on his/her side
  • Call ambulance if first seizure or duration of 5 minutes or more
  • Reassure student after seizure, allow to rest
assessment of physical disabilities health disabilities and related low incidence disabilities
Assessment of Physical Disabilities, Health Disabilities, and Related Low-Incidence Disabilities
  • Medical evaluation
    • Physician confirms diagnosis of physical or health condition
  • Educational evaluations
    • Team determines if the disability negatively impacts educational performance
  • Students with deaf-blindness
    • Developmental, rather than standardized, assessments are used
impact on school performance
Impact on School Performance

Type of Disability:

  • Neuromotor impairments
  • Orthopedic and musculoskeletal impairments
  • Degenerative and terminal diseases
  • Sensory impairments
  • Health impairments
  • Multiple disabilities
impact on school performance continued
Impact on School Performance (continued)

Functional Effects of a Disability:

  • Atypical movements and motor abilities
  • Sensory loss
  • Communication impairments
  • Fatigue, lack of endurance
  • Health factors
  • Experiential deficits
  • Cognitive impairments, processing deficits
impact on school performance continued20
Impact on School Performance (continued)

Psychosocial and Environmental Factors:

  • Motivation
  • Self-concept
  • Self-advocacy
  • Behavioral and Emotional Functioning
  • Social Environment and Social Competence
  • Physical and Technological Environments
  • Learning and Attitudinal Environments
educational considerations for students who are deaf blind
Educational Considerations for Students Who are Deaf-Blind
  • Communication
  • Orientation and mobility
  • Collaborative efforts
slide22
Services for Young Children with Physical Disabilities, Health Disabilities, and Related Low-Incidence Disabilities
  • Collaborative services
  • Motor development
  • Communication development
  • Use of augmentative communication
  • Building of experiences
transition into adulthood
Transition into Adulthood
  • Career preparation
  • College
  • Technology
adults with physical disabilities health disabilities and related low incidence disabilities
Adults with Physical Disabilities, Health Disabilities, and Related Low-Incidence Disabilities
  • Community acceptance and supports
  • Preventative medical care
  • Terminal illnesses
family issues
Family Issues
  • Stress coping strategies
  • Medical treatments
  • Death issues
issues of diversity
Issues of Diversity
  • Lack of cultural bias in diagnosis
  • Cultural differences in coping with illness and disability
slide27
Technology and Individuals with Physical Disabilities, Health Disabilities, and Related Low-Incidence Disabilities
  • Assistive technology
  • Augmentative communication
  • Positioning and seating devices
  • Mobility devices
  • Environmental control and assistive technology for daily living
  • Assistive technology for play and recreation
trends issues and controversies
Trends, Issues, and Controversies
  • Assessing capabilities and needs
  • Specialized technology, adaptations, instructional strategies
  • Appropriate curriculum