Anabolic androgenic steroids
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Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids. Anabolic: stimulate muscle growth Androgenic: stimulate male sex characteristics. Androstane. Male Sex Hormones. Before Castration. After Castration. It was deduced that a secretion of the testes was responsible for male sex characteristics.

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Anabolic androgenic steroids

Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids

Anabolic: stimulate muscle growth

Androgenic: stimulate male sex characteristics

Male sex hormones
Male Sex Hormones





  • It was deduced that a secretion of the testes was responsible for male

  • sex characteristics

Testis extract and hormones from urine
Testis Extract and Hormones from Urine

Testis extract: High activity

Separation of androgenic and anabolic effects
Separation of Androgenicand Anabolic Effects

  • Receptors for testosterone have the same affinity in the

  • sex accessory organs as in skeletal muscle

Metabolic deactivation of testosterone
Metabolic Deactivationof Testosterone

17 substituted derivatives
17α-substituted Derivatives

17 esters
17β- Esters

Structure activity relationship
Structure Activity Relationship

Performance enhancers
Performance Enhancers

  • 17α- alkyl and 17β- esters are not suitable for illegal use by athletes because of their prolonged life and ease of detection

  • Prohormones are metabolized into active anabolics and occur naturally in the body




1. Kochakian, C. D. “History of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids.” Anabolic Steroid Abuse. 1990, 29-50.

2. Block, John H. Beale, John M. Organic Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry. Pa: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. 2004.

3. Kochakian, C. D. “The Effects of Male Hormone on the Protein and Energy Metabolism of Castrate Dogs.” Journal of Nutrition. 1935. 437-59.

4. Bowers, A. Edwards, J. “Steroids: Ring A Modified Hormone Analogs, Part 1.” Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 6. 1962.

5. Celotti, F. Cesi, P. “Anabolic Steroids: A review of their effects on the muscles, of their possible mechanisms of action and of their use in athletics.” Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 43(5). 1992. 469-77.

6. Krieg, M. “Characterization of the androgen receptors in the muscle of the rat.” Steroids 28. 1976. 261-74.

7. Counsell, R. E. Adelstein, G. W. “!9-Nor- and 19-Substituted 5a-Androst-2-ene Derivatives” Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 1966. 685-9.

8. Delbeke, Frans T. “Prohormones and Sport.” Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 83. 2003. 245-51.