slide1 l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
An Auditor’s Services Principles of Auditing: An Introduction to International Standards on Auditing - Ch 4 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
An Auditor’s Services Principles of Auditing: An Introduction to International Standards on Auditing - Ch 4

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 45

An Auditor’s Services Principles of Auditing: An Introduction to International Standards on Auditing - Ch 4 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 338 Views
  • Uploaded on

An Auditor’s Services Principles of Auditing: An Introduction to International Standards on Auditing - Ch 4. Rick Stephan Hayes, Roger Dassen, Arnold Schilder, Philip Wallage. IAASB’s Engagement Standards.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'An Auditor’s Services Principles of Auditing: An Introduction to International Standards on Auditing - Ch 4' - Mia_John


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

An Auditor’s Services Principles of Auditing: An Introduction to International Standards on Auditing - Ch 4

Rick Stephan Hayes,

Roger Dassen, Arnold Schilder,

Philip Wallage

iaasb s engagement standards
IAASB’s Engagement Standards
  • Some engagement standards are based on “International Framework for Assurance Engagements” (assurance engagements), and others result from the “Related Services Framework” (related services engagements).
  • Three sets of standards (ISAs, ISREs and ISAEs) share the assurance engagement framework and one standard set (ISRS) is based on the related services framework.
  • ISAs, ISREs, ISAEs and ISRSs are collectively referred to as the IAASB’s Engagement Standards.
reasonable and limited assurance engagements not in text
Reasonable and Limited Assurance Engagements (not in text)
  • “Reasonable assurance engagement” and “limited assurance engagement” distinguish between the two types of assurance engagement
  • The objective of a reasonable assurance engagement is a reduction in assurance engagement risk to an acceptably low level as the basis for a positive form of expression of the practitioner’s conclusion. E.g, “presents fairly in all material respects”
  • The objective of a limited assurance engagement is a reduction in assurance engagement risk to a level that is acceptable in the circumstances, as the basis for a negative form of expression of the practitioner’s conclusion. E.g., “nothing has come to our attention that causes us to believe that financial statements do not conform, in all material respects, with IFRS”.
slide5

Besides the International Framework for Assurance Engagements, ISAs, ISREs and ISAEs, practitioners who perform assurance engagements are governed by (not in text)

  • The IFAC Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants
  • International Standards on Quality Control (ISQCs)
assurance engagements for audits and reviews for historical financial information isas isres
Assurance Engagements for Audits and Reviews for Historical Financial Information (ISAs / ISREs)
  • Historical Financial Standards are divided into those governed by International Standards on Auditing (ISAs) and International Standards on Review Engagements (ISREs)
  • Audit standards are described in ISA 200-799. Special Purpose Engagementand other examinations of historical financial information is ISA 800 – 899 (except reporting which is ISA 701).
  • Review standards are ISREs 2000 – 2699
assurance engagements on subject matters other than historical financial information isaes
Assurance Engagements on Subject Matters Other than Historical Financial Information (ISAEs)

The ISAE standards are divided into two parts:

(1) ISAEs 3000 – 3399 which are topics that apply to all assurance engagements

(2) ISAEs 3400 – 3699 which are subject specific standards, for example standards relating to examination of prospective financial information,

not all engagements performed by practitioners are assurance engagements
Not all engagements performed by practitioners are assurance engagements

Frequently performed engagements that are not covered by the Assurance Framework are:

  • Engagements covered by International Standards for Related Services (ISRS), such as agreed-upon procedures and compilations.
  • The preparation of tax returns where no conclusion conveying assurance is expressed.
  • Consulting (or advisory) engagements, such as management and tax consulting.
related services framework isrss
Related Services Framework (ISRSs)

Standards under this framework, International Standards on Related Services (ISRSs), are applied currently to two audit services:

  • Agreed-upon procedures (ISRS 4400) Agreed-upon procedures are assurance based on audit procedures in a very limited “agreed upon” area with a proscribed set of users.
  • Compilations (ISRS 4410 ). Compilations offer no assurance whatsoever.
assurance engagements defined
Assurance Engagements Defined

Assurance engagement means an engagement in which a practitioner (professional accountant or auditor), expresses a conclusion (in report form) that is designed to enhance the degree of confidence users have about the evaluation of a subject matter against identified criteria.

five elements that all assurance engagements exhibit
five elements that all assurance engagements exhibit
  • a three party relationship involving a practitioner; aresponsible party; and the intended users,
  • a subject matter,
  • suitable criteria,
  • evidence
  • an assurance

report.

three party relationship
Three Party Relationship
  • The practitioner (e.g., auditor, accountant, expert) gathers evidence to provide a conclusion to the intended users about whether a subject matter (e.g., financial statements) conforms, in all material respects, with identified criteria.
  • The responsible party (usually management or the board of directors) is one who is responsible for the subject matter and is not the intended user.
  • The intended users are generally the addressee of the assurance report.
subject matter
Subject Matter

The assurance engagement evaluates whether the subject matter conforms to suitable criteria that will meet the needs of an intended user.

A subject matter of an assurance is the topic about which the assurance is conducted.

  • Subject matter could be information such as financial statements, statistical information, non-financial performance indicators, capacity of a facility, etc.
  • The subject matter could also be systems and processes (e.g., internal controls, IT systems) or behavior (e.g., corporate governance, compliance with regulation, human resource practices).
suitable criteria
Suitable Criteria

Suitable criteria are the benchmarks (standards, objectives or set of rules) used to evaluate evidence or measure the subject matter of an assurance engagement.

  • International Financial Reporting Standards
  • U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles
  • national standards
  • Global Reporting Initiative
  • PCAOB internal control report criteria
  • Applicable law, regulation or contract
  • An agreed level of performance
characteristics of suitable criteria
Characteristics of Suitable Criteria

(a) Relevance

(b) Completeness

(c) Reliability

(d) Neutrality

(e) Understandability

assurance report
Assurance Report

The practitioner provides a written report containing a conclusion that conveys the assurance obtained as to whether the subject matter conforms, in all material respects, with the identified criteria. For instance, an audit of financial statements provides an opinion on conformity with IFRS.

assurance report basic elements
Assurance Report Basic Elements
  • A title
  • An addressee:
  • A description of the subject matter.
  • A statement restricting the use of the assurance report
  • identification the responsible party
  • Statement - performed in accordance with ISAEs.
  • A summary of the work undertaken
  • Identification of the criteria
  • The practitioner’s conclusion
  • The assurance report date.
  • The name and location of the firm or the practitioner
engagements to review financial statements isre 2400
Engagements to Review Financial Statements (ISRE 2400)

Where reviews of financial statements differ most from a financial statement audit is in the limited procedures performed (limited in inquiry of management and analytical procedures) and the review report. Reviews are limited assurance engagements.

isre 2400 objective of review not in text
ISRE 2400 Objective of Review (not in text)

The objective of a review of financial statements is to enable an auditor to state whether, on the basis of procedures which do not provide all the evidence that would be required in an audit, anything has come to the auditor’s attention that causes the auditor to believe that the financial statements arenot prepared, in all material respects, in accordance with the applicable financial reporting framework (negative assurance).

engagements to review interim financial statements isre 2410 not in text
Engagements to Review Interim Financial Statements (ISRE 2410)Not in Text
  • The objective of a review of interim financial information differs significantly from that of an audit in accordance with ISAs. A review of interim financial information does not provide a basis for expressing an opinion.
  • A review may bring significant matters affecting the interim financial information to the auditor’s attention, but it does not provide all of the evidence that would be required in an audit.
review limited audit procedures
Review: Limited Audit Procedures
  • Inquiry consists of seeking information of knowledgeable persons inside or outside the entity.
  • Analytical procedures consist of the analysis of significant ratios and trends including the resulting investigation of fluctuations and relationships that are inconsistent with other relevant information or deviate from predictable amounts.
  • Inspection consists of examining records, documents, or tangible assets, is carried out on a limited basis.
review review of financial statements conclusion
Review: Review of Financial Statements Conclusion

The review report should contain a clear written expression of negative assurance. The auditor should assess whether anything has come to the auditor’s attention based on the review that causes the auditor to believe the financial statements do not give a true and fair view (or ‘are not presented fairly, in all material respects,’) in accordance with the identified financial reporting framework.

special purpose engagements new terms from isa 701 replace the old isa 800 terms not in text
SPECIAL PURPOSE ENGAGEMENTSNew terms from ISA 701 {replace} the old ISA 800 terms Not in text

The auditor refers to ISA 701 when expressing an opinion on:

  • A complete set of financial statements prepared in accordance with a financial reporting framework designed for a general purpose, but not designed to achieve fair presentation;

(b) A complete set of financial statements prepared in accordance with a financial reporting framework designed for a special purpose{(1) Other comprehensive basis of accounting and (2) Reports on compliance with contractual agreements} such as

    • That used by an entity to prepare its income tax return.
    • The cash receipts and disbursements basis of accounting.
    • The financial reporting provisions of a government regulatory agency

(c) A single financial statement, or statements, that would otherwise be part of a complete set of financial statements and

(d) One or more specific elements, accounts or items of a financial statement{component financial statements}.

slide26

A complete set of financial statements prepared in accordance with a financial reporting framework designed for a general purpose, but not designed to achieve fair presentation

For example, for a balance sheet prepared to establish the value of net assets of an entity at the date of its sale, the seller and the purchaser may have agreed that estimates of allowances for uncollectible accounts receivable are to be made. This may result in preparing financial information that is not neutral (as required in paragraph 36(d) of the ISA 200 Framework), but it may nevertheless be acceptable in the circumstances.

slide27

A financial reporting framework designed for a special purpose{Other Comprehensive Basis of Accounting (OCBA) and Reports on compliance with contractual agreements}

  • That used by an entity to prepare its income tax return.
  • The cash receipts and disbursements basis of accounting.
  • The financial reporting provisions of a government regulatory agency.
  • The financial reporting provisions of a contract
slide28
 One or more specific elements, accounts or items of a financial statement{Reports on a Component of Financial Statements}
  • The auditor may be requested to express an opinion on one or more components of financial statements, for example, accounts receivable, inventory, an employee’s bonus calculation or a provision for income taxes.
  • This type of engagement does not result in a report on the financial statements taken as a whole and, accordingly, the auditor would express an opinion only as to whether that specific component audited is prepared in accordance with the accounting standards.
summarized financial statements
Summarized Financial Statements
  • ISA 701 does not discuss reports expressing an opinion on summary historical financial information which has been derived from historical financial information. Standards and guidance for auditors’ reports on summary audited financial statements are contained in proposed ISA 800, “The Independent Auditor’s Report on Summary Audited Financial Statements.”
reports on summarized financial statements
 Reports on Summarized Financial Statements
  • Some financial statement users may only be interested in the highlights of a company’s financial position.
    • The auditor expresses an opinion whether the summary financial statements are an appropriate summary of the financial statements from which they have been derived in accordance with the applied criteria.
    • The report must caution the reader that summarized financial statements should be read in conjunction with the company’s most recent audited financial statements.
assurance engagements on other than historical financial information
Assurance Engagements on Other than Historical Financial Information

Subject specific standards fall into four subject matter groups:

  • Prospective financial statements
  • Subject mater related to non-financial information
  • Subject matter related to systems and processes (e.g., corporate governance, environmental systems, and internal control(SOx SEC 404)
  • Subject matter about behavior.
slide32

Examples of existing standards that may be considered in systems and processes, non-financial information or behavior assurance engagements are:

  • Sarbanes Oxley Section 404 internal control audit standard
  • Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) Sustainability Reporting Guidelines.
  • SA8000 standards for social accountability towards employees,
  • International Labour Organization (ILO) conventions for social accountability towards employees,
  • World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) social and eco-efficiency indicators,
  • European Union Eco-management and Audit scheme (EMAS) standard for environmental management systems, and
  • ISO14001 standard for environmental management systems.
the examination of prospective financial information isae 3400
The Examination of Prospective Financial Information (ISAE 3400)
  • “Prospective financial information” means financial information based on assumptions about events that may occur in the future. Prospective financial information can be in the form of a forecast, a projection or a combination of both.
    • A “forecast” is prospective financial information prepared on the basis of management’s assumptions as to future events (best-estimate assumptions).
    • A “projection” means prospective financial information prepared on the basis of hypothetical assumptions about future events and management actions which may or may not take place, such as a possible merger of two companies.
internal control reporting and sox 404 reporting
Internal Control Reporting and SOX 404 reporting

A company must issue an internal control report containing these statements:

  • Management's responsibility for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control
  • The framework used by management to evaluate the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting
  • Management's assessment of the effectiveness of the company's internal control over financial reporting
  • The report is reviewed by an external auditor.
auditor standards for internal control reports
Auditor Standards for Internal Control Reports
  • Section 103 of the Sarbanes-Oxley require that public accounting firms describe in the audit report the scope of its testing of the company's internal control structure and procedures performed in its internal control evaluation under SOx Section 404(b).
  • In the audit report, the registered public accounting firm also must describe, at a minimum, material weaknesses in company internal controls and any material noncompliance found.
slide36
PCAOB Auditing Standard No. 4, Reporting on Whether a Previously Reported Material Weakness Continues to Exist (not in text)
  • Establishes requirements that apply when an auditor is engaged to report on whether a previously reported material weakness in internal control over financial reporting continues to exist
  • Such an engagement is voluntary in nature at the election of management, and may be performed as of any reasonable date selected by management.
sustainability reporting triple bottom line assurances
Sustainability Reporting “Triple Bottom Line” Assurances

Economic Sustainability An organization’s impacts on the economic circumstances of its stakeholders and on economic systems at the local, national and global levels.

Environmental SustainabilityAn organization’s impacts on living and non-living natural systems, including ecosystems, land, air and water.

Social Sustainability An organization’s impacts on the social systems within which it operates.

Impacts on stakeholders at the local, national, and global levels.

The organization’s intangible assets, such as its human capital and reputation.

the report under the gri guidelines has 5 sections
The report under the GRI Guidelines has 5 sections
  • Vision and Strategy – a description of the reporting organization’s strategy with regard to sustainability, including a statement from the CEO.
  • Profile – overview of the reporting organization’s structure and operations and of the scope of the report.
  • Governance Structure and Management Systems – description of organizational structure, policies, and management systems, including stakeholder engagement efforts.
  • GRI Content Index – a table supplied by the reporting organization identifying where the information listed.
  • Performance Indicators – measures of the impact or effect of the reporting organization divided into integrated, economic, environmental, and social performance indicators.
related services international standards on related services isrs
Related Services International Standards on Related Services (ISRS)

Engagements covered by International Standards for Related Services, including:

  • Agreed-upon procedures.(ISRS 4400)
  • Compilation of financial or other information.(ISRS 4410)
engagements to perform agreed upon procedures regarding financial information isrs 4400
Engagements to Perform Agreed-Upon Procedures Regarding Financial Information (ISRS 4400)

An agreed-upon procedures engagement is an engagement in which the party engaging the professional accountant or the intended user determines the procedures to be performed and the professional accountant provides a report of factual findings as a result of undertaking those procedures.

matters to be agreed between auditor and management include the
Matters to be agreed between auditor and management include the:
  • nature of the engagement including the fact that no assurance will be expressed on the procedures performed;
  • identification of the financial information to which the agreed-upon procedures will be applied;
  • nature, timing, and extent of the specific procedures to be applied.
audit procedures agreed
Audit Procedures Agreed

The auditor performs certain procedures concerning individual items of financial data (for example, accounts payable, accounts receivable, purchases from related parties and sales and profits of a segment of an entity), a financial statement (for example, a balance sheet) or even a complete set of financial statements.

engagements to compile financial information isrs 4410
Engagements to Compile Financial Information (ISRS 4410)

The objective of a compilation engagement is for the accountant to use accounting expertise, as opposed to auditing expertise, to collect, classify and summarize financial information. This ordinarily entails reducing detailed data to a manageable and understandable form without a requirement to test the assertions underlying that information.

the accountant is not ordinarily required to
The accountant is notordinarily required to:
  • Make any inquiries of management to assess the reliability and completeness of the information provided;
  • Assess internal controls;
  • Verify any matters; or
  • Verify any explanations.