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Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) for HIV - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) for HIV . Presentation Objectives. By the end of this session, you should be able to: Describe the basic facts about voluntary counseling and testing (VCT). Explain the importance of VCT. Describe the goals and outcomes of VCT.

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Presentation Transcript
presentation objectives

Presentation Objectives

By the end of this session, you should be able to:

Describe the basic facts about voluntary counseling and testing (VCT).

Explain the importance of VCT.

Describe the goals and outcomes of VCT.

Describe the link from VCT to HIV

prevention, care and treatment.

hiv counseling and testing
HIV Counseling and Testing

HIV Counseling

    • Confidential dialogue between a client and a care provider aimed at enabling the client to cope with stress and make personal decisions related to HIV and AIDS.
  • Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT)
    • A combination of two activities– counseling and testing –into a service that amplifies the benefits of both.
why is vct so important
Why is VCT So Important?
  • 90% of those infected in Eastern and Southern Africa do not know that they are infected.
  • Knowing one’s serostatus allows people to alter their behavior.
  • VCT provides an opportunity for prevention counseling and referral to care and support services.

VCT is an entry point and not the end point.

why is vct so important5
Why is VCT So Important?
  • Effective prevention and care activities require people to know their HIV status.
  • VCT promotes and sustains behavior change (prevention).
  • VCT facilitates early referral to care and support services- including access to antiretroviral therapy.
  • VCT links with PMTCT, STI, and OI services.
  • VCT assists in stigma reduction.
slide6

Acceptance of

Serostatus and coping

Early management of OIs and STDs

Planning for future orphan care; Will preparation

Voluntary

Counseling

Testing

Reduces mother-to-child transmission

Referral to social and peer support

Normalizes HIV/AIDS

Facilitates

behavioral

change

Preventive therapy

(TB and bacteraemia)

and contraceptive advice

goals of vct 1
Goals of VCT (1)
  • Prevention of HIV transmission
    • From +ve tested people to -ve or untested partner/s
    • From +ve tested mother to child
    • From +ve or untested partner/s to -ve tested people
  • Early uptake of services
    • Counseling for positive living
    • Social support
    • Legal advice
    • Future planning
  • Medical care
  • Family planning
  • Emotional care
goals of vct 2
Societal benefits

Normalisation of HIV

Reduction of stigma

Promote awareness

Support human rights

Increase adherence to:

ARV therapy

Preventive therapies

ARV regimens for PMTCT

Infant feeding choices

Goals of VCT (2)
components of vct
Determining clients knowledge

Giving accurate information

Conducting personalized risk assessment

Developing a personalized risk reduction plan

Demonstrating appropriate condom use

Explaining the test and obtaining informed consent

Discussing implications of HIV result

Assessing coping ability

Result notification

Providing psychological and emotional support and referral as appropriate

Components of VCT
rationale for vct as an intervention strategy
Rationale for VCT as an Intervention Strategy
  • Effective in promoting behavioural change and providing psychosocial support.
  • Cost effective especially when it is targeted to couples and “high risk groups”.
  • Feasible as a component of comprehensive HIV prevention and care strategies in developing countries.
  • Facilitates the linkage to other HIV prevention and care activities.
cost effectiveness of vct vct is cost effective

Outcome

Tanzania

Kenya

HIV Infections Averted Per 10,000 Persons

895

1104

Cost/HIV Infection Averted

$ 346

$ 249

Cost /DALY Saved

$ 17.78

$ 12.77

Cost Effectiveness of VCTVCT is cost effective

(Sweat et al).

review of vct outcomes
Review of VCT Outcomes
  • Prevention of HIV transmission
  • Prevention of HIV transmission in special populations
  • Care: Improving access to medical, emotional, and social support
barriers to vct 1
Barriers to VCT (1)
  • Fear
  • No cure or treatment
  • Stigma
  • No need: I’m faithful
  • Partner with a negative HIV result
  • Gender inequalities
  • Lack of perceived benefit
  • Lack of access to care and support services
barriers to vct 2
Barriers to VCT (2)

Fear

“I feel if I tested positive it would just devastate me. You know that, while I know I might be positive - I had herpes zoster - there are times I tell myself that its my father-in-law doing some black magic on me. If I went and had a test and they said ‘you have it’ then I know I would be dead in a week.”

  • Woman 28 years, Kara Counseling and Training Trust, Lusaka, Zambia
barriers to vct 3
Barriers to VCT (3)

No cure or effective treatment

“I do not even want a test. What are you going to do about it if I come out positive? Are you going to give me medicines? If you tell me that you can give me medicines or that you will cure the disease then I can go for a test tomorrow.”

  • Man 30 years, Kara Counseling and Training Trust, Lusaka, Zambia
barriers to vct 4
Barriers to VCT (4)

Stigma

“ If you go for a test and the result comes out positive your family will not take care of you because you will be an outcast.”

  • Woman 22 years, Kara Counseling and Training Trust, Lusaka, Zambia
barriers to vct 5
Barriers to VCT (5)

No need

“Its not necessary since a test is only for those young ones who have not followed their parents’ advice of not indulging in things like careless sex.”

  • Woman 56 years, Kara Counseling and Training Trust, Lusaka, Zambia
barriers to changing sexual behavior following vct
Barriers to Changing Sexual Behavior Following VCT
  • Partner communication difficulties
  • Gender imbalances in sexual decision making
  • Difficulties in changing sexual behaviour
  • Desire to have children
  • Stigma
  • Economic deprivation