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Quality Management & Customer Care SERVQUAL Questionnaire Service industries are characterised by… Intangibility Heterogeneity Inseparability of production from consumption Services cannot be ‘stored’ in inventories

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quality management customer care servqual questionnaire
Quality Management & Customer CareSERVQUAL Questionnaire

Service industries are characterised by…

  • Intangibility
  • Heterogeneity
  • Inseparability of production from consumption
  • Services cannot be ‘stored’ in inventories
  • A lack of symmetry in the power relationships i.e. who can judge the work of a professional save a fellow professional ?
quality management customer care servqual questionnaire2
Quality Management & Customer CareSERVQUAL Questionnaire

The Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry model..

  • Originally identified 10 dimensions of quality and developed a list of 97 items on a seven point scale…
  • After testing and subsequent refinement (i.e. factor analysis) the list was collapsed into a 22-item questionnaire covering 5 dimensions..) called SERVQUAL
quality management customer care servqual questionnaire3
Quality Management & Customer CareSERVQUAL Questionnaire
  • Tangibles (environmental factors)
  • Reliability
  • Responsiveness
  • Assurance
  • Empathy

These factors would differ in importance from service to service e.g. reliability is more important in a bank, empathy in a hospital!

quality management customer care servqual questionnaire4
Quality Management & Customer CareSERVQUAL Questionnaire

Gap analysis

The questionnaire is divided into 2 main sections:

  • Expectations measures what is anticipated in an ideal service (on a 7-point scale)
  • Perceptions then measures those aspects of the service as actually delivered or experienced
  • Satisfaction (S) is conceptualized as the gap between expectations and perceptions
  • So.. S=E-P
quality management customer care servqual questionnaire5
Quality Management & Customer CareSERVQUAL Questionnaire

How are expectations formed ?

  • Frequency and length of use of the service- the gap will narrow over time
  • Services affect consumers differently (house repair differs from an operation for cancer)
  • Expectations are influenced by knowledge held by producers/consumers about what is feasible
  • Attitudes (formed by previous bad experiences) may indicate lower expectations
  • Feelings are important (e.g. at times of grief)
quality management customer care servqual questionnaire6
Quality Management & Customer CareSERVQUAL Questionnaire

Three common mismatches are:

  • Consumer expectations vs. management expectations of what the service should be
  • Actual service delivery vs. information about the service
  • Expected service vs. perceived service
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Quality Management & Customer CareSERVQUAL Questionnaire

USA General Sample [1990]

Dimension Weight Perceptions Expectations Gap

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Tangibles 0.11 5.54 5.16 +0.38

Reliability 0.32 5.16 6.44 -1.28

Responsiveness 0.22 5.20 6.36 -1.16

Assurance 0.19 5.50 6.50 -1.00

Empathy 0.16 5.16 6.28 -1.12

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Weighted averages [n=1936] 5.28 6.27 -0.99

 (Source: calculated from from Zeithaml, Parasuraman and Berry [1990] )

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Quality Management & Customer CareSERVQUAL Questionnaire

UK Hospital Outpatient SurveyDimension Weight Perceptions Expectations Gap

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Tangibles 0.13 5.21 5.24 -0.03

Reliability 0.26 5.52 6.31 -0.79

Responsiveness 0.21 5.88 6.17 -0.29

Assurance 0.20 5.98 6.39 -0.41

Empathy 0.20 5.66 6.16 -0.50

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Weighted averages [n= 72] 5.67 6.15 -0.48

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Quality Management & Customer CareSERVQUAL Questionnaire

Finland Hospital Outpatient Survey

Dimension Weight Perceptions Expectations Gap

───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Tangibles 0.18 5.64 6.03 -0.38

Reliability 0.21 5.51 6.04 -0.54

Responsiveness 0.20 5.73 6.12 -0.39

Assurance 0.22 5.83 6.23 -0.40

Empathy 0.19 5.74 6.08 -0.35

───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Weighted averages [n= 135] 5.72 6.14 -0.41

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Quality Management & Customer CareSERVQUAL Questionnaire

General problems with satisfaction scores

  • People bring differing expectations into a situation and have different starting points
  • To measure quality just through a satisfaction score may have a limited value
  • Is it the role of e.g. public services (such as a probation service) to provide satisfaction ?
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Quality Management & Customer CareSERVQUAL Questionnaire

Applicability in the public sector

  • In education it is possible that a teacher get high scores for satisfaction (whereas in practice the course was not sufficiently demanding)
  • In social services you could (in theory) put ‘good’ tenants in one housing unit and ‘undesirable’ tenants in another and this could increase the satisfaction scores (while being discriminatory!)
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Quality Management & Customer CareSERVQUAL Questionnaire

Measurement scales…

───────┼───────────────┼─────────────────────┼──────┼─────

D C B A

we can say that the distance

__ __ __ __

AD = AB + BC + CD

If these scales are genuinely ordinal, we cannot add, subtract, multiply, divide…

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Quality Management & Customer CareSERVQUAL Questionnaire

Reactions to SERVQUAL

  • Used in a large number of studies and therefore some comparability over time/between studies
  • Academic rather than Industry based
  • Does need to be combined with other measures (such as value analysis, history, competition)
  • Gap analysis may map imperfectly onto quality
  • Some doubts remain on a technical level as to what is actually being measured
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Quality Management & Customer CareSERVQUAL Questionnaire

Calculating SERVQUAL scores…

This can be easily done…

  • Easily done using a spreadsheet
  • Utilize the SERVCALC program which mechanises the process