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TEXONO Research Program on Low Energy Neutrino and Astroparticle Physics

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  1. TEXONO Research Program on Low Energy Neutrino and Astroparticle Physics • Overview : Experimental Particle Physicsin Taiwan & TEXONO Collaboration • Kuo-Sheng(國聖) Reactor Neutrino Laboratory ※Facilities ※ Research Topics • R&D Program • Summary & Outlook Henry T. Wong / 王子敬 Academia Sinica /中央研究院 @ APN04 *Taiwan EXperiement On NeutrinO http://hepmail.phys.sinica.edu.tw/~texono/

  2. Experimental Particle Physics in Taiwan …… started late 80’s , with existing nuclear physics/engineering programs Academia Sinica (中央研究院) : • CDF@Tevatron@Fermilab (opto-electronics ….) • AMS@Space Shuttle & Station (space electronics ….) • TEXONO Program on Neutrino Physics in Taiwan [LOCALLY based and led] • LEPS@SPring8 (fast electronics, analysis ….) • ATLAS@LHC@CERN (GRID computing, opto-electronics …….) National Taiwan University (台灣大學) : • Belle@KEKB@KEK (EFCalo, analysis …) • CMS@LHC@CERN National Central University (中央大學): • L3@LEP@CERN • PHOBOS@RHIC@BNL (Si-detectors …..) • CMS@LHC@CERN (Si-detectors…..)  Satellite Institutes  closely-connected Theory, Astronomy , Space Program, Sync. Rad. … communities

  3. TEXONO* Collaboration W.C. Chang, K.C. Cheng, M.H. Chou, H.C. Hsu, C.H. Iong, G.C.Jon, F.S. Lee, S.C.Lee, H.B. Li, V. Singh, D.S. Su, P.K.Teng, H.T.K.Wong,  S.C. Wu Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan W.P. Lai Chung Kuo Institute of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan C.H. Hu, W.S. Kuo, T.R. Yeh Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Lungtan, Taiwan H.Y. Liao, S.T. Lin,M.Z. Wang National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan F.K. Lin National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan Z.M. Fang, R.F. Su Nuclear Power Station II, Kuosheng, Taiwan J. Bao, K.J. Dong, S. Jiang, L. Hou, Y.H. Liu, H.Q. Tang, B. Xin, Z.Y. Zhou Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing, China J.Li, Y. Liu, J. Nie, Z.P.Mao, J.F.Qiu, H.Y.Sheng, P.L.Wang, X.W. Wang, D.X.Zhao, P.P.Zhao, B.A.Zhuang Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing, China J.Q. Lu, T.Y. Chen Nanjing University, Nanjing, China Y. An, D.Z. Liu, Q. Yue, Y.F. Zhu Tsing Hua University, Beijing, China C.Y. Chang, G.C.C. Chang University of Maryland, Maryland, U.S.A. M. Deniz, M. Zeyrek Middle East Technical University, Turkey Co-Prinicipal Investigators Ph.D. Students • HISTORY • Initiate : Chang Chung-Yung 1996 • First Collab. Meeting/Official Start : October 1997 • First Paper : October 1998 • KS Reactor Experiment Installation : June 2000 • First Ph.D. : Liu Yan , July 2000 • First Physics Data Taking : June 2001. • First Physics Results: Dec 2002.

  4. TEXONO Overview Program: • Kuo-Sheng Reactor Neutrino Laboratory ※ oscillation expts. mn0  anomalous n properties & interactions • ※ n physics full of surprises , need intense n-source • ※ reactor : high flux of low energy electron anti-neutrinos • study/constraint new regime wherever experimentally accessible • explore possible new detection channels • R&D Projects Poineering Efforts : “Zero-Background Experiment” ! • KS Expt:1st large-scale particle physics experiment in Taiwan • TEXONO Coll. : 1st big research Coll. % Taiwan & China [feature report in Science, Vol. 300, 1074 (2003) ]

  5. Kuo-Sheng Nuclear Power Plant KS NPS-II : 2 cores  2.9 GW KS nLab: 28 m from core#1

  6. Kuo Sheng Reactor Neutrino Laboratory Front Gate Front View (cosmic vetos, shieldings, control room …..) Configuration: Modest yet Unique Flexible Design: Allows different detectors conf. for different physics Inner Target Volume

  7. KS Expt. : Period I-III Configuration Shielding & Veto [one side] ULB-HPGe + Anti-Comptons CsI(Tl) Array (200 kg)

  8. KS Expt: Period I Detectors ULB-HPGe [1 kg] CsI(Tl) [46 kg] FADC Readout [16 ch., 20 MHz, 8 bit] Multi-Disks Array [600 Gb]

  9. Kuo Sheng Reactor Neutrino Laboratory : First Results

  10. Motivations • fundamental neutrino properties & interactions ; a channel to differentiate Dirac/Majorana neutrinos (nD/nM) • look for surprises and/or constrain parameter space with future precision oscillation data • study 1/T spectral shape in n-e scattering, T is electron recoil energy • Related to neutrino radiative decays

  11. TEXONO data (4712/1250 hours ON/OFF)[PRL 90, 2003] • comparable bkg level to underground CDM experiment at 10-20 keV : ~ 1 day-1keV-1kg-1 (cpd) • analysis threshold 12 keV • No excess of counts ON/OFF comparison • Limit: mn(ne) < 1.3 X 10-10mB (90% CL) • more data/improvement to get to sensitivity range mn(ne) 1.0 X 10-10mB

  12. Reactor mn(ne) Sensitivities Gn Sensitivities

  13. KS Physics Program : Periods I & II & III HPGe [1 kg] : • mn + Gn : x2 more data from PRL improved background & analysis • study ne flux from reactor [B. Xin’s talk] • study possible nuclear transitions e.g. 73Ge* decays by 2g’s separated by t1/2=4.6 ms • Possible reactor axion search CsI(Tl) [186 kg] : [V.Singh’s talk] • attempt measurement of Standard Model s(nee-)  sin2qw at MeV range Prototype ULE-HPGe [5 g] : • threshold < 300 eV  ~ 100 eV • explore potentials on nN coherent scattering & CDM

  14. Reactor Neutrino Interaction Cross-Sections On-Going Data Taking: • SM s(ne) • T > 2 MeV • R&D : • Coh. (nN) • T < 1 keV Results & More Data: • mn(ne) • T ~ 1-100 keV

  15. “Ultra-Low-Energy” HPGe Prototype • mass 5 g ; can be constructed in multi-array form • threshold <100 eV after modest PSD (lowest achieved for bulk radiation detectors) • background measurement on-site Nov 03 • study appl. in nN coherent scattering and Dark Matter searches

  16. ULE-HPGe Prototype Results PSD Cut Threshold ~ 100 eV Threshold < 100 eV Signal Band

  17. Sensitivity Plot for CDM-WIMP search with 1 kg ULEGe at 100 eV threshold ……… [Q. Yue’s talk]

  18. R&D Projects • Explore New Detectors Scenarios (LEn, CDM …) • other crystal scintillators (GSO …) • ultra low energy HPGe [ O(100 eV) threshold ] • Feasibility Studies onCsI(Tl) for Dark Matter Searches  Approved Experiment @ Korea by KIMS Coll. • Upgrading FADCs (+ FPGA etc. capabilities…..) for LEPS@SPring8 • Trace Radio-purity with AMS( Accelerator Mass Spectrometry)  1st goal : sensitivity of 10-14 g/g in 40K • Sono-LuminescenceProject (inter-disciplinary) Completed On-Going Completed Completed On-Going On-Going

  19. CsI(Tl) for CDM Searches • Potential Merits: • Better PSD for g/a separation than NaI(Tl) • Minimal passive materials • Large target mass possible (c/f em-calor. 40 tons) • Highlights of R&D Program: • Quenching Factor measurements with neutron beam  lowest threshold data • 1st direct measurement of diff. cross section in heavy nuclei • PSD studies with Neural Net. & Max. Likelihood  improve conventional methods NKIMS Expt. :  200 kg CsI(Tl) for CDM in S. Korea

  20. TEXONO/KS FADC for SPring8/LEPS • 40 MHz ; 12 bit ; 32 ch/module @ 9 U VME [ c/f KS FADC : 20 MHz ; 8 bit ; 16 ch/module ] • On-board processing with FPGA • 1000 channels used in TPC in LEPS Expt. @ SPring8 TPC for LEPS @ SPring8 Mixed signal FADC Adapter Board • 40 MHz sampling rate. • 10 bits resolution with 2Vp-p dynamic range. • Clock distribution with Phase Lock Loop circuit. • On Board digital signal delay and • Real-Time ZERO-Suppression. • High capacity First In First Out Memory. • Easy to use with high density connector. (cosmic muon)

  21. Trace Radio-purity with AMS • Based at AMS facilities @CIAE with 13 MV Tandem • Potential Merits:  small samples, quick •  versatile on sample choice •  sensitive to a/b emitters •  sensitive to stable isotope & extrapolate (e.g. 39K) •  >103 improvements over ICP-MS • [.. once prescriptions are known. ] • Status :  demonstrate 129I/127I < 10-12 g/g  measure 40K~10-10 g/g in CsI (powder) Sensitivity goal : 10-14 g/g • Future :  different bases e.g. liquid scintillator 87Rb …… [238U / 232Th series after Tandem upgrade]

  22. Sonoluminescence Project (AS,CIAE,THU….) • a frontier subject with possible surprises • new directions : to explore subjects we do not know • inter-disciplinary research a testing ground from HEP group future possibility • Table-top experiments, pursue-able in several labs  balance the other big & long time-scale projects  use HEP approaches • Focus : understand physics mechanism emissions of high energy radiations SonoLum Pulse

  23. SonoLum Pulse

  24. TEXONO-KIMS Connections ……… • KIMS: funded Dark Matter program with underground facility @ Y2L in Korea [Y.D. Kim’s talk] • bring LE-HPGe to Y2L for measurement 04/05 [led by THU team] background below 1 keV, CDM searches • may evolve into a full-scale (1 kg) CDM experiment • may broaden framework in the future (regular joint meetings ; sharing of know-how ….) Yangyang (襄陽) Lab (Y2L) min. 700 m of rock overburden

  25. Li Jin’s talk ……….. • Possibilities for Reactor q13……… • IHEP’s q13 Proposal at Daya Bay near Hong Kong •  More Powerful Reactor Complex • More overburden possible from mountains • Tunnel Digging Cost Less in China

  26. Summary & Outlook • TEXONO Collaboration:  Built-Up & Growing • Kuo-Sheng Neutrino Lab.: Established & Operational ※Modular & Flexible Design Physics Data Taking since June 01 ※ Unique HPGe Low Energy Data ※Bkg Level ~ Underground CDM Expt. • Results published on mn (Gn) Other DAQ+analyses under way • Diversified R&D Program in parallel ※Current Research Focus at : mn (Gn)&s(n-e )& scoh(nN)& SonoLum.& CDM& AMS • Reaching Out Y2L @ Korea / Daya Bay Project (?) / Regional Framework (?)  welcome new collaborators & happy to explore other scenario • TEXONO is (a modest) part of world neutrino physics community