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    1. Myers PSYCHOLOGY (5th Ed) Chapter 7 States of Consciousness James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers

    3. Sleep and Dreams Circadian rhythm the biological clock regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24 hour cycle wakefulness body temperature

    4. Sleep and Dreams REM (Rapid Eye Movement) Sleep recurring sleep stage vivid dreams paradoxical sleep muscles are generally relaxed, but other body systems are active

    5. Brain Waves and Sleep Stages Alpha Waves slow waves of a relaxed, awake brain Delta Waves large, slow waves of deep sleep Hallucinations false sensory experiences

    6. Typical Nightly Sleep Stages

    7. Typical Nightly Sleep Stages

    8. Sleep Deprivation Effects of Sleep Loss fatigue impaired concentration immune suppression irritability slowed performance accidents planes autos and trucks

    9. Sleep Deprivation

    10. Sleep Disorders Insomnia persistent problems in falling or staying asleep Narcolepsy uncontrollable sleep attacks

    11. Sleep Disorders Sleep Apnea cessation of breathing often associated with snoring repeatedly awakes sufferer Night Terrors high arousal- appearance of being terrified usually in Stage 4, within 2-3 hours of falling asleep

    12. Night Terrors and Nightmares Night Terrors occur within 2 or 3 hours of falling asleep during Stage 4 Nightmares occur toward morning during REM sleep

    13. Dreams- Freud Sigmund Freud- The Interpretation of Dreams (1900) wish fulfillment discharge otherwise unacceptable feelings Manifest Content remembered story line Latent Content underlying, uncensored meaning

    14. Dreams Information Processing helps consolidate days memories stimulates neural development REM Rebound REM sleep increases following REM sleep deprivation

    15. Hypnosis Hypnosis a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts or behaviors will spontaneously occur a relaxed state

    16. Hypnosis Posthypnotic Amnesia supposed inability to recall what one experienced during hypnosis induced by the hypnotists suggestion Suggestibility related to subjects openness to suggestion ability to focus attention inwardly ability to become imaginatively absorbed

    17. Hypnosis Memory sometimes a relaxed, focused state can improve recall hypnotically refreshed memories are unreliable false memories or pseudomemories can be implanted intentionally unintentionally

    18. Hypnosis Unhypnotized persons can also do this

    19. Hypnosis Orne & Evans (1965) control group instructed to pretend unhypnotized subjects performed the same acts as the hypnotized ones Posthypnotic Suggestion suggestion to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized used by some clinicians to control undesired symptoms and behaviors

    20. Hypnosis and Pain Dissociation a split in consciousness allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others Hidden Observer Hilgards term describing a hypnotized subjects awareness of experiences, such as pain, that go unreported during hypnosis

    21. Drugs and Consciousness Psychoactive Drug a chemical substance that alters perceptions and alters mood Physical Dependence physiological need for a drug marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms Psychological Dependence a psychological need to use a drug for example, to relieve negative emotions

    22. Dependence Tolerance need for progressively larger doses to achieve same effect Withdrawal discomfort and distress with discontinued use

    23. Psychoactive Drugs Depressants drugs that reduce neural activity slow body function alcohol, barbiturates, opiates Stimulants drugs that excite neural activity speed up body function caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines

    24. Psychoactive Drugs Hallucinogens psychedelic (mind-manifesting) drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input LSD

    25. Psychoactive Drugs Barbiturates drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgement

    26. Psychoactive Drugs Opiates opium and its derivatives (morphine and heroin) opiates depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety

    27. Psychoactive Drugs Amphetamines drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing accelerated body functions and associated energy and mood changes

    28. Cocaine Euphoria and Crash

    29. Psychoactive Drugs LSD lysergic acid diethylamide a powerful hallucinogenic drug also known as acid THC the major active ingredient in marijuana triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations

    30. Trends in Drug Use

    31. Near Death Experiences Near Death Experience an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death often similar to drug-induced hallucinations

    32. Near Death Experiences Dualism the presumption that mind and body are two distinct entities that interact Monism the presumption that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing