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General overview about ecosan. Christine Werner, Heinz-Peter Mang, Florian Klingel, Patrick Bracken Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH ecological sanitation programme, Division 44 – environment and infrastructure. 01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India.

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general overview about ecosan

General overview about ecosan

Christine Werner, Heinz-Peter Mang, Florian Klingel, Patrick Bracken

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH

ecological sanitation programme, Division 44 – environment and infrastructure

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

content
Content
  • Introduction to ecosan
  • ecosan technologies
  • ecosan pilot projects
  • GTZ-ecosan programme
  • urban ecosan systems

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

shortcomings of conventional watercarriage sanitation

Introduction to ecosan

shortcomings of conventional watercarriage sanitation
  • The idea, that human excreta are wastes with no useful purpose is a modern misconception. It has led to the develop-ment of so-called “drop and store” or “flush and forget” sanitation solutions, where precious drinking water is used to transport excreta into the water cycle misusing our rivers, oceans and aquifers as a sink for untreated waste.

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

shortcomings of conventional watercarriage sanitation4

Introduction to ecosan

shortcomings of conventional watercarriage sanitation
  • Unsatisfactory purification or uncontrolled discharge of more than 90 % of wastewater worldwide
    • Severe water pollution, unbearable health risks
  • Consumption of precious water for transport of waste
  • High investment, energy, operating and maintenance costs
  • Frequent subsidization of prosperous areas and neglect of poorer settlements
  • Loss of valuable nutrients and trace elements contained in excrements due to discharge into waters
  • Problems with contaminated sewage sludge in combined, central systems
  • Linear end-of-pipe technology

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

shortcomings of conventional drop and store sanitation
shortcomings of conventional „drop and store“ sanitation

Retention of solids

Infiltration of liquids

Pathogens

Nitrates

Polluted groundwater

Viruses

Introduction to ecosan

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

excreta are a valuable resource

Introduction to ecosan

million tons per year

(as N + P2O5 + K2O)

135

www.fertilizer.org

50

excreta are a valuable resource
  • farmers around the world yearly require 135 Mio tons of mineral fertiliser for their crops, while at the same time conventional sanitation dumps 50 Mio tons of fertiliser equivalents from so called wastewater flows into our water bodies - nutrients with a market value of around 15 Billion US dollars.

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

principles of ecosan
principles of ecosan

FOOD

FOOD

closing the loop

between sanitation and agriculture

NUTRIENTS

NUTRIENTS

Pathogen destruction

Introduction to ecosan

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

closing the loop between sanitation and agriculture

Introduction to ecosan

closing the loop between sanitation and agriculture

rainwater harvesting

restoring soil fertility

food

agricultural use

organicwaste

greywater

faeces

urine

treatment / hygienization

water reuse

no waste disposal in water bodies

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

advantages of ecological sanitation

Introduction to ecosan

advantages of ecological sanitation
  • Improvement of health by minimizing the introduction of pathogens from human excrements into the water cycle
  • Promotion of safe, hygienic recovery and use of nutrients, organics, trace elements, water and energy
  • Preservation of soil fertility, Improvement of agricultural productivity
  • Conservation of resources
  • Preference for modular, decentralised partial-flow systems for more appropriate, cost-efficient solutions
  • Promotion of a holistic, interdisciplinary approach
  • Material flow cycle instead of disposal

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

slide10

Introduction to ecosan

eco-sanitation concepts and strategies

eco-sanitation…

  • … is not a specific technology, but a new philosophy - based on an eco-system-oriented view of material flows - of dealing with what is presently regarded as waste and wastewater for disposal
  • … applies the basic natural principal of closing the loop by using modern and safe sanitation and reuse technologies
  • … opens up a wider range of sanitation options than those currently considered.
  • Human excreta and domestic used water are not wastes but are important natural resources!

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

ecosan is a cross sectoral approach

Resource conservation

Climate protection

Business and labour promotion

Flood protection

Food security

ecosan

Integrated Water Resources Management

Sustainable agriculture

Health

+

Conservation of soil fertility

Introduction to ecosan

ecosan is a cross-sectoral approach

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

composition of household wastewater

14.1

12.3

5.3

3.6

K

Organics

kg COD/ (Person·year)

P

N

1.0

0.8

Nutrient content

kg N,P,K / (Person·year)

Introduction to ecosan

composition of household wastewater

10.000 – 200.000 l

50 l

500 l

source: Otterpohl

Volume

Liter / (Person·year)

greywater urine faeces

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

fertilizer potential of human excreta

Introduction to ecosan

fertilizer potential of human excreta

source: Drangert, 1998

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

slide14

Introduction to ecosan

eco-sanitation concepts and strategies

To optimise cost efficient, high quality treatment and recycling options, two principles are very often being applied in ecosan systems:

  • flow streams with different characteristics, such as faeces, urine and greywater, are often collected separately. Rainwater harvesting and the treatment of organic waste and animal manure can also be integrated into the concepts.
  • the unnecessary dilution of the flow streams is avoided, for example by using dry, low flush or vacuum transport systems. This minimises the consumption of valuable drinking water and produces high valued concentrations of recyclables.

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

phosphate

Introduction to ecosan

phosphate

source: US Geological survey, 2003

  • World demand for phosphate fertilizers continues to expand in relation to increased world population and food requirements.
  • For the period 2003-07, world phosphate consumption is forecasted to increase by 2.6% annually.
  • Within about 60 years, all reserved phosphate are expected to be mined.
  • Future conflicts on the access to phosphate are likely, due to the limited reserves and the concentration of significant minable resources in a very small number of countries.

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

who guidelines for agricultural use of treated water
WHO guidelines for agricultural use of treated water

Introduction to ecosan

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

agricultural utilisation of nutrients
agricultural utilisation of nutrients

Introduction to ecosan

One person can provide enough nutrients for:200 m2 to 400 m2 agricultural production area, depending on soil and plant type, but:

a multi-barrier concept is recommended for securing hygienic safety in the reuse of human faeces and urine in agriculture:

  • Awareness raising and education on hygiene and reuse aspects
  • Proper pre-treatment (storage, drying, composting, anaerobic digestion, heating, filtration, irradiation with UV etc.)
  • Suitable „handling“ (with security measures)
  • Limitation to specific vegetables and field crops, or to specific vegetation periods, depending on pre-treatment

the crops nutrient needs have to be respected (no over-fertilisation) with respect to crop quality and environmental concerns

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

centralised and decentralized systems

Introduction to ecosan

centralised and decentralized systems

Centralized

Partially decentralized

Fully decentralized

source: Larsen, 2001

  • centralized sewer system and treatment
  • recovery of nutrients and water e.g. through reuse of wastewater
  • small-scale closed cycles of water and materials
  • e.g. separate collection of urine or blackwater
  • centralized nutrient processing facility
  • centralized greywater sewer system and treatment

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

cost comparison ecosan vs conventional
cost comparison: ecosan vs. conventional

Introduction to ecosan

Vacuum urine-diversion toilet

Conventional toilet (WC)

Cost

Composting urine diversion toilet

source: Berliner Wasserbetriebe

Time (year)

Projected costs for sanitation service for 5000 inhabitants, Germany

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

benefits of ecological sanitation

Introduction to ecosan

benefits of ecological sanitation
  • safe sanitation
  • healthy environment

source: www.virtualmuseum.ca

source: Johannes Heeb

ecosan-toilets in Bangalore, India

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

benefits of ecological sanitation21

Introduction to ecosan

benefits of ecological sanitation
  • improved soil quality through reuse of organics
  • restored soil fertility through nutrient reuse

faeces & urine

none

urine

source: Petter Jenssen

compost improved soil

source: Vinnerås, 2003

untreated soil

after one week without water

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

benefits of ecological sanitation22

Introduction to ecosan

benefits of ecological sanitation

source: Petter Jenssen

  • recovery of energy content (covering about 20% of cooking energy needs for a typical family in a developing country)
  • energy savings in fertilizer production & wastewater treatment
  • reuse of water

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

overview of ecosan technology components

ecosan technologies

overview of ecosan technology-components

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

examples of urine diverting toilets

ecosan technologies

examples of urine diverting toilets

China

Dubletten, Sweden

Roediger, Germany

Wost-Man, Sweden

dry/wet:

faeces with, urine without flush

dry/wet:

faeces without, urine with flush

wet:

faeces & urine with flush

GTZ, Mali

waterless:

faeces and urine without flush

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

waterless urinals
waterless urinals

ecosan technologies

vacuum urinal

KfW-building, Germany

Lambertsmühle, Germany

Mon Museum, Sweden

Urimat

Ernst

Keramag

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

examples of composting toilets

ecosan technologies

examples of composting toilets

composting toilet, Germany

(Berger Biotechnik)

Sweden

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

examples of dehydrating toilets

ecosan technologies

examples of dehydrating toilets

school toilet facility, China

two chamber systems

rear view of a dehydrating toilet, Mali

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

examples of dehydrating toilets28

ecosan technologies

examples of dehydrating toilets

various dehydration systems (with and without urine separation)

“Enviroloo”-prefabricated system, South Africa

“SolaSan”-prefabricated system, South Africa

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

vacuum systems

ecosan technologies

vacuum systems

elements:

vacuum toilets, vacuum urinals, vacuum conductions, pumping station

advantages:

water saving, concentrated black water collection, decentralised treatment possible (anaerobic)

manufacturer:

i.e. Roediger GmbH

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

anaerobic treatment with biogas production

ecosan technologies

anaerobic treatment with biogas production

small-scale biogas plants:

decentralized treatment of household wastewater with or without agricultural waste

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

slide31

ecosan technologies

large scale biogas plants

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

membrane technology

ecosan technologies

membrane technology
  • Highly effective removal of soluable and biodegradable materials in wastewater stream
  • selective permeable membrane (pore sizes < bacteria)
  • treated water recycle potential for non-potable application
  • compact, flexible system

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

e arthworm treatment system

ecosan technologies

earthworm treatment system

example in South Africa:

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

aqua culture

tilapia

carp

duckweed

ecosan technologies

aqua culture
  • wastewater treatment by aquatic plants and fish with nutrient recyling by human consumption
  • offers high quality protein at low cost
  • predominantly in Asian countries
  • fish production of 1-6 tons/ha·year) achieved

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

fishfarming with wastewater from ducks poultry or pigs husbandry asia

ecosan technologies

fishfarming with wastewater from ducks, poultry or pigs husbandry (Asia)

source: Nils de Pauw

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

constructed wetlands

ecosan technologies

constructed wetlands
  • treatment of wastewater or greywater
  • effective in the removal of BOD, TSS, pathogen and nitrogen
  • effluent can be reused
  • aesthetically appealing

source: Cemagref

vertical flow

source: Comax International Ltd.

Niels De Pauw

horizontal flow

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

constructed wetland with biomass production

ecosan technologies

Constructed wetland with biomass production
  • Combined wastewater treatment and bio-fuel production from willow plantations (example in Sweden)
  • Cost and energy effective

source: EU Fair, 2003

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

epuvalisation

ecosan technologies

„epuvalisation“

nutrient recycling (Senegal)

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

urine storage

ecosan technologies

urine storage

Various containers for urine storage:

Gebers, Sweden

Lambertsmühle, Germany

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

agricultural use
agricultural use

ecosan technologies

direct injection of liquid fertiliser

irrigation

urban agriculture

urban agriculture

dried faeces - „soil amelioration“)

composting with organic waste

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

slide41

ecosan pilot projects

basic types of ecosan projects

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

slide42

Vacuum pipe

Central technical building

Storm water infiltration in swales

Transport of blackwater and biowaste

Vacuum toilet

Biowaste shredder

Greywater treatment in constructed wetlands

ecosan pilot projects

eco-settlement Lübeck – Flintenbreite, Germany

eco-settlement for 350 people

source: Otterwasser GmbH, Germany

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

slide43

ecosan pilot projects

eco-settlement Lübeck – Flintenbreite, Germany

apartments with greywater treatment and constructed wetlands

vacuum station, sanitization tank and biogas treatment plant for the collection and treatment of diluted blackwater

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

ecosan public toilet centre bangalore india supported by acts sdc uni oslo and gtz

ecosan pilot projects

ecosan public toilet centre Bangalore, India (supported by ACTS, SDC, Uni Oslo and GTZ)
  • Public toilet: separate collection of urine, faeces and anal cleaning water
  • Co-composting of faeces with paper

Source: Johannes Heeb

Source: Johannes Heeb

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

slide45

ecosan pilot projects

public toilet centre Bangalore, India (supported by ACTS, SDC, Uni Oslo and GTZ)

Current collection- transport-, treatment- and reuse-system

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

new zealand

ecosan pilot projects

New Zealand

compost toilet (bin)

greywater wasteland

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

biogas program dhapasi nepal

ecosan pilot projects

biogas-program Dhapasi, Nepal

biogas is used for cooking, organic sludge is used to fertilise the garden

toilet wastewater and manure is used in a household biogas plant

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

slide48

ecosan pilot projects

experimental on-site sanitation in Koulikoro, Mali (supported by GTZ)

experimental on-site sanitation module consisting of a urine diverting dehydrating latrine, shower and greywater garden

Urine diverting concrete slab

Greywater garden

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

egypt supported by gtz

ecosan pilot projects

Egypt (supported by GTZ)
  • large scale field test on soilisation of sewage sludge using vegetation (IPP Consult)

Soilisation bed with grass

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

slide50

ecosan pilot projects

integrated natural resources management in Botswana (supported by IUCN, DED, GTZ)

Introduction of ecosan systems in three communities: dehydration toilets, urine separation and fertilization of gardens with urine

urine diversion toilet made out of plastic

Awareness workshop on a village level

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

slide51

ecosan pilot projects

biogas septic tanks Lesotho (supported by GTZ and DED)

  • 1st step (2002): small bore sewer grid for 8 houses, a biogas-septic tank unit, upflow filter based on recycled plastic bottles, wetland, 800m² vegetable and fruit garden, two household connections for the biogas as full cooking energy source
  • 2nd step (2003): field tests of black-, greywater and urine separation

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

ecosan study and reuse experiments in havana cuba supported by gtz

ecosan pilot projects

ecosan-study and reuse experiments in Havana, Cuba (supported by GTZ)
  • Study of options for reuse of urine and faeces in existing urban agriculture in Havana

improved soil quality through reuse of organics

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

participatory development of ecosan solutions in gibeon and marienthal namibia supported by gtz

ecosan pilot projects

participatory development of ecosan solutions in Gibeon and Marienthal, Namibia (supported by GTZ)
  • Information, awareness building, situation and stakeholder analysis
  • Participatory development of ecosan concepts
  • Pilot and demonstration units (fixed and movable dehydration toilets with urine diversion)

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

chinese four in one model

ecosan pilot projects

Chinese „four in one“ model

pig – toilet – biogas – vegetable

  • combined with Greenhouse Production
  • more than 1,000,000 times in peri-urban areas of Megacities in Northern China
  • Use of nutrients, organics, energy and carbon dioxyde

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

ecosan dry toilet promotion in guangxi province china supported by sida and unicef

ecosan pilot projects

ecosan dry toilet promotion in Guangxi-Province, China (supported by SIDA and Unicef)
  • Large ecosan project in the phase of up-scaling
    • 1997, pilot project funded by SIDA/Unicef, 70 ecosan (urine diverting dehydration toilets) built in pilot village, Dalu Village
    • 1998, 10.000 urine-diverting toilets were built in 200 ecosan villages in Guangxi
    • 2002, 100.000 ecosan toilets in Guangxi
    • 2003, 685.000 ecosan toilets in 17 provinces (Ministry of Public Health)
  • Factors of success: cultural acceptance, political commitment, technical flexibility, low cost, income generation, pressure from water pollution and water scarcity, promotion and marketing

Photos: Sandec, Text: Mi Hua

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

examples in guanxi province china

ecosan pilot projects

examples in Guanxi province, China

Public school

Very remote village:

No water supply, difficult transport,

+ biogas plants for manure

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

household biogas latrines

ecosan pilot projects

household biogas latrines

By 2002: 11 million households

Data: Ministry of Agriculture

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

decentralized treatment for municipal sewerage

ecosan pilot projects

Baffled septic tank

decentralized treatment for municipal sewerage

DEWATS /LOMWATS

Decentralized wastewater treatment systems

Low maintenance wastewater treatment systems

Biogas Digestors

By 2002: 115.176 plants

Data: Ministry of Agriculture

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

slide61

ecosan pilot projects

Eco-City, Jiangsu province, China (supported by GTZ)

  • ecosan components to be integrated in the Changzhou - Yangzhou “Eco-City-Programme”
  • Baselinestudy completed, feasibility study planned

Model of eco-planned„Golden City“

Floriculture

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

slide62

ecosan pilot projects

KfW office building Palmengarten, Germany

ecosan concept since 2003:

  • Greywater recycling
  • Rainwater harvesting
  • Vacuum wastewater collection

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

slide63

ecosan pilot projects

GTZ headquarters, main building, Germany

ecosan concept: separation, processing and agricultural reuse of urine (implementation 2004/2005)

urine diversion toilets and waterless urinals

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

slide64

ecosan pilot projects

Bulgaria

Germany

Algeria

Turkey

Afghanistan

Mali

Benin

China

Jordan

Iran

Cuba

Vietnam

Egypt

India

El Salvador

Yemen

Philippines

Burkina Faso

Ecuador

Eritrea

Indonesia

Zambia

Peru

Kenya

Namibia

Lesotho

Botswana

GTZ supported ecosan pilot projects around the world

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

urban ecosan concepts
urban ecosan concepts

Conventional Wastewater System

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

urban ecosan concepts66
urban ecosan concepts

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

urban ecosan concepts67

food

faeces

urine

greywater

drinking water

Periphery

urban ecosan concepts

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

urban ecosan concepts68
urban ecosan concepts

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

urban ecosan concepts69
urban ecosan concepts

Residential Area

food

faeces

urine

greywater

treated greywater

drinking water

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

urban ecosan concepts70
urban ecosan concepts

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

urban ecosan concepts71
urban ecosan concepts

food

faeces

urine

greywater

treated greywater

drinking water

Downtown Area

irrigation

of urban green

vacuum

sewerage

biogas

plant

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India

urban ecosan concepts72
urban ecosan concepts

01-03-2005, IESNI 2nd workshop, Pune, India