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DOPING: WHY DO THEY DO IT ? CAN IT BE STOPPED?. Robert T. Brown, M.D. Professor, Clinical Pediatrics & OB/Gyn The Ohio State College of Medicine & Pubic Health Chief, Adolescent Medicine Chidren’s Hospital Columbus, OH, USA. DOPING.

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doping why do they do it can it be stopped

DOPING:WHY DO THEY DO IT?CAN IT BE STOPPED?

Robert T. Brown, M.D.

Professor, Clinical Pediatrics & OB/Gyn

The Ohio State College of Medicine & Pubic Health

Chief, Adolescent Medicine

Chidren’s Hospital

Columbus, OH, USA

doping
DOPING
  • Definition: the use and abuse of performance enhancing substances in elite sport.
  • Derivation: from the Dutch word “dop”, a beverage that Zulu warriors used prior to battle.
  • Term became current ~ start of 20th century in reference to illegal drugging of racehorses
doping history
DOPING - History
  • Egyptian slaves fed elixirs (likely from khat leaves) thought to relieve stress
  • Greek athletes ate supposedly energy boosting substances prior to activity
  • Slaves of the Incas worked better after chewing coca leaves
  • A century ago, marathoners & cyclists used strychnine, and cyclists used caffeine, cocaine, and even alcohol for an advantage.
doping history4
DOPING - History
  • 1928 – IAAF bans doping (use of stimulants)
  • 1935 - Isolation of testerone with subsequent creation of artificial anabolic steroids
  • WW II - concentration camp survivors given testosterone and nandrolone to enhance recovery from starvation
  • 1966 – FIFA (football) & UCI (cycling) introduce drug testing at championships
doping history5
DOPING - History
  • 1968 – drug testing first used in Olympic Games
  • 1974 – reliable test for anabolic steroids introduced
  • 1976 – IOC bans anabolic steroids
  • 1979 – testing for illegal drugs by IOC begins
doping history6
DOPING - history
  • 1986 – IOC bans blood doping
  • 1999 – World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) founded
  • 2000 - first Olympics testing for EPO
  • 2004 – BALCO indicted in the USA
motivations for use of doping
Motivations for Use of DOPING
  • To enhance performance
    • Increased strength, endurance, alertness, aggression
    • Decreased reaction time, fatigue, anxiety, muscle tremor
  • Drive to win
  • Financial incentives
  • Belief that others are using PES (performance enhancing substances
  • Coping with pain and injury rehabilitation
  • Weight control
motivations for use of doping8
Motivations for Use of Doping
  • To alleviate stress & anxiety
  • To relieve boredom
  • To avoid dealing with personal problems
  • To alleviate low self-confidence
  • Lack of acknowledgment (DENIAL) of any harmful effects of PES
  • Perfectionism
motivations for use of doping9
Motivations for Use of Doping
  • Peer pressure and acceptance
  • Role models
  • Social support
  • Pressure from coaches/parents/advisors/national sports organizations
motivations for doping elite vs adolescent athletes
Motivations for DOPING: Elite vs. Adolescent Athletes
  • World class athletes already are “genetic freaks”; they function at an elite level without PES, but to win against others at this level, they may resort to use of PES.
  • Elite athletes use doping because it is the edge they feel they need to win at top levels of their sports.
  • Adolescent athletes may use doping more due to peer/coach/parental pressure; ignorance of facts about PES; self-doubt; to avoid the hard work needed to succeed.
taking doping to the next level
Taking Doping to “The Next Level”
  • Low-oxygen living quarters
  • Gene therapy for increased levels of IGF-1
  • Prenatal chromosome replacement/gene insertion
prevention of doping
Prevention of DOPING
  • Acknowledge that athletes use PES
  • Education about PES at all levels
    • Education of athletes, coaches, parents, public
  • Marketing to sell the concept of “clean” sports” and condemnation of PES use
  • Penalties – financial and no-compete
  • Appeal to Ethics
  • Attention to athlete’s non-sports issues
barriers to prevention of doping
Barriers to Prevention of Doping
  • Nationalistic sports organizations
  • Financial payoffs
  • Fuzzy line between performance enhancement through legal means and doping
  • Cultural drive for human enhancement in all facets of life
  • Blurring of line between foods and drugs
  • Scientific knowledge advancement
can doping be stopped
Can Doping Be Stopped?
  • The Modern Olympic Movement started with the concept of the Olympic Creed
the olympic creed
The Olympic Creed

"The most important thing in the Olympic Games is not to win but to take part, just as the most important thing in life is not the triumph but the struggle. The essential thing is not to have conquered but to have fought well."

The words of the Olympic creed are attributed to Baron Pierre de Coubertin, the founder of the modern Olympic Games

can doping be stopped16
Can Doping Be Stopped?
  • The Modern Olympic Movement started with the concept of the Olympic Creed
  • Over the past 35 years, the amateur athlete has been replaced, for the most part, by the professional athlete
  • Society seems not to care about this issue any longer, if it ever did
  • Will the same scenario be followed for Doping?
slide17

Should doping be legalized for all professional athletes?Will there be 2 competitions: clean and enhanced? Will we be able to tell the difference?Will the Dopers win?

slide18

“There will come a day when they (the anti-doping activists) just have to give up. It’s maybe 20 years away, but it’s coming.”H. Lee SweeneyChairman, Department of PhysiologyUniversity of Pennsylvania, USAResearcher with IGF-1 gene insertion

OLYMPIC CREED

                                "The most important thing in

the effect of the suspicion and or use of doping
The Effect of the Suspicion and/or Use of Doping
  • That's what cheating does to a sport, which is why baseball was wrong not to stand up to its players' union earlier and demand testing. There is a corrosive effect, and it will linger throughout this season and likely for years to come.

Phil Sheridan, Philadelphia Inquirer, 2/25/’04