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Preparing and Writing Research Proposals © C.P.P. Reid, Univ. Arizona M. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDC Update 2004 Contents Introduction The Need for Scientific Research Identifying and Prioritizing Research Needs Identifying Sources of Research Funding

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slide1

Preparing and Writing Research Proposals

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDC Update 2004

contents
Contents
  • Introduction
  • The Need for Scientific Research
  • Identifying and Prioritizing Research Needs
  • Identifying Sources of Research Funding

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

contents cont d
Contents (cont‘d)
  • Research Proposal Procees
  • Pre-planning
  • Writing the Proposal Pre-planning
  • Writing the Proposal

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide4

Contents (cont‘d)

  • Writing Techniques and Appearance of Proposal
  • Post-Proposal Writing
  • Group Research

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide5

The Need for Scientific Research

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Objectives of this session

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide7

Review the basic components of scientific research.

Examine the scientific method in practice.

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide8

Examine the relationship among research, tech-nology and production.

Consider the value of the research endeavor to education

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide9

Basic Components of the Scientific Method

Empirical Evidence

Logical Reasoning

Skepticism

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Primary Literature

Secondary Literature

Textbook Science

Reliable Knowledge

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide11

Initial Experimental and Observational Data

Discarded by Peers

No

Primary Literature

Yes

Discarded by Peers

No

Secondary Literature

Yes

Discarded by Peers

No

Yes

Textbook Literature

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide12

The Scientific Method in Practice

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide13

Step 1.

Identify a significant problem or ask a meaningful question in such a way that there is a conceivable answer.

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Step 2.

Attempt to answer the question posed in step 1 above by gathering relevant information and making observations.

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide15

Step 3.

Propose a solution to the problem or answer to the question as a scientific hypothesis.

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Step 4.

Test the hypothesis to allow corroboration and establishment of validity.

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Step 5.

Accept, reject, abandon, or modify the hypothesis.

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide18

Step 6.

Construct, support, or cast doubt on a scientific theory

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

the scientific method in practice
The Scientific Method in Practice

Step 1: Identify Significant Problem or Ask Meaningful Question

Step 2: Attempt to Answer Question orPose Solution to Problem

Step 3: Propose Solution to ProblemorAnswer to Questionas a Scientific Hypothesis

Continued ...

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

the scientific method in practice cont d
The Scientific Method in Practice (cont’d)

Step 4: Test Hypothesis to Allow Corroboration andValidity

Step 5: Accept, Reject, Abandon, or Modify Hypothesis

Modify

RejectAbandon

Accept

Step 6: Construct, Support, or Cast Doubt on a Scientific Theory

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide21

Research, Technology Development and Production

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

technology
Technology

Technology:

Systematic application of scientific knowledge to practical tasks.

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

technology23
Technology

Pure research, technology development, and production and marketing have substantial

overlap in time.

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Use of Graduate Research Assistants

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Pros

Training of future scientists

Hands-on research

Financial support for graduate students

Low cost to Principal Investigator

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Incentives for graduate enrollment

Increased research capacity

New science in graduate curriculum

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide27

Cons

Narrow focus of graduate experience (reduced breadth)

Possible delay in completing graduate program

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide28

Goal-oriented research results

May not contribute to scientific merit as viewed by reviewers

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide29

Identifying and Prioritizing Research Needs

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Objectives

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide31

Examine the need and approach for defining realistic research problems

Recognize the need and establish methods for stakeholder input into identifying research problems

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Examine the need for determining in advance the resources needed to conduct a research project

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

defining problems
Defining Problems

Example 3.1

Statement of the Problem:

Insect Z.z. defoliation of Species 4

Reason for choosing this topic:

a) commercial value

b) tree damage

(cont‘d on next slide)

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide34

Reason for choosing this topic: (cont‘d)

c) percent of species A in commercial forests of region

d) recreation impact

e) need for control measures

f) etc.

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Example 3.2

Restatement of the Problem

Reasons:

a) species A is a commercially valuable tree species

b) insect defoliation is resulting in growth reduction and death of trees

(cont‘d on next slide)

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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c) species A is the dominant tree species in 45% of the commercial forests in region Y

d) defoliation is reducing the recreation value in the parks in the region

e) there are also current control measures for controlling insect Z.z on species A

f) etc.

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Example 3.3

An A BUT B Statement:

There is a need to prevent defoliation of large areas of tree species A by insect Z.z in region Y, BUT, there are no effective and economical control measures for this insect.

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Key Stakeholder Groups and Their Functions in Forest Research

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Stakeholders are defined as people, groups, or organizations that have a claim on the research organization’s (and individual researcher’s) attention, resources or output, or are affected by that output.

Lundgren,et al., 1994

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Funders and Legislators

Evaluate budget and funding requests for research programs

Provide funds for research

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Higher-level Administrators and Policy Makers

Prepare and justify budget requests

Administer laws, regulations

Allocate appropriations

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide42

Research Managers

Plan and manage research programs

Prepare and justify budget requests for specific research projects, programs, activities

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide43

Research Scientists

Plan and do research

Disseminate research findings

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide44

Research Disseminators

Disseminate new knowledge and technologies resulting from research

Provide feedback from users to scientists

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide45

Users of Research Results

Adopt and adapt research results

Implement new technologies

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide46

Civil Society / (General Public)

Receive wanted and

unwanted effects from the use of research results

Affect funding decisions

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide47

Stakeholder Analysis

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide50

Stakeholder

What do they

Criteria they

According

want from

use to evaluate

to these

the

the

criteria,

researcher?

researcher's

how is the

performance.

researcher

performing?

International

-

Specific

-

Progress

Unknown in

Research

research

reports

this example

Donor

activities

-

Evaluations

Organizations

-

Reports and

-

Publications

results

-

Useful results

-

Well-conducted

studies

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide51

Identifying Sources of Research Funding

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Objectives

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide53

Show the importance of understanding the goals, purposes, and perspectives of potential research sponsors

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Emphasize the need to determine if potential sponsors have specific requirements for:

eligibility to seek funding

collaboration andcooperation

matching funds

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide55

Stress the need to follow the guidelines and formats of the sponsor

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide56

Recognize that some sponsors value basic research over applied and vice versa

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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To appreciate that different research approaches are necessary to government, private foundations, and corporate sponsors

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide58

The Research Proposal

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide59

The Research Proposal Process - Introduction

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide60

Objectives

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide61

Introduce the important steps leading to the writing of the research proposal

Introduce the major components of a research proposal

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide62

Basic Steps in Successful Fund-seeking

Identify of a potential sponsor

Contact key people for assistance in planning

Write a well reasoned proposal

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

background documentation
BackgroundDocumentation

Concept

Provides the basis for fitting into the

philosophy and mission of the

funding organization

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Program

What you propose to do. Nature of the project and how the research will be carried out. (outcome, timetable staffing)

Expenses

Best estimate of the resources that will be needed to complete the research

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

general components of a research proposal
General Components of a Research Proposal
  • Executive Summary
  • Statement of Need
  • Project Description
  • Budget
  • Organizational Information
  • Conclusion

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide66

The Research Proposal Process - Pre-Planning

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Objectives

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide68

Provide steps in establishing contact with a potential sponsor

Provide suggestions on specific questions that should be asked to:

program officers

grantees

past reviewers

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide69

Researcher

Sponsor

Mission, Purpose, Goals

Expertise and Capability

Guidelines and Eligibility Requirements

Organization’s Mission

Concept Development

Sponsor Contact and Feedback

Other contacts: Past Reviewers, Grantees

Project Proposal Development and Preparation

Final Proposal

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide70

Suggest how to refine the focus and concept of the proposal

Indicate the content of a pre-proposal

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Questions to Program Officer of Sponsor

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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If your project concept doesn’t fit current priorities -- possible modifications? Other sponsors interested?

What is the sponsor’s current budget for grant program?

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide73

Awards on the basis of special criteria, such as geographic region or type of organization?

One-time-only support? Allow renewals or other funding opportunities in the future?

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide74

Any unannounced programs or unsolicited funds to support research?

Most common mistakes found in proposals submitted to you?

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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What would you like to see given more attention to that is not being currently met by applicants?

Willing to review a pre-proposal of 2-3 pages that succinctly develops the research concept?

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Willing to recommend a previously funded proposal to read for idea of format and style?

Should proposal be written for reviewers with non-technical backgrounds?

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide77

Provide names of past reviewers who might be contacted?

Standard Reviewer’s Evaluation Form or Panel’s Evaluation Form used?

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide78

Questions to Previous Awardees

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide79

Call or visit the sponsor before writing the proposal?

Who was most helpful on the sponsor’s staff in assisting you?

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide80

Use any special advocates on your behalf?

Would the sponsor review a pre-proposal or proposal draft prior to final proposal?

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide81

Any hidden agenda items related to the sponsor’s program?

What materials or information was most useful in developing your proposal?

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide82

Did the sponsor make a site visit prior to deciding on funding your project?

How did initial budget request compare to the final budget awarded?

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide83

Even though successful, what would you do differently next time?

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide84

Questions for Previous Reviewer

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide85

How were you selected to be a reviewer?

Did you review proposals at the sponsor location or some other location?

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide86

Was a particular evaluation or scoring system used?

Were you given instructions to look for certain characteristics or specific items in the proposals?

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide87

Having been a reviewer, would you write proposals differently based on your experience?

What did you find to be the most common mistakes made in the proposals?

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide88

How many proposals were you required to review at any one time?

How much time did you have to review each proposal?

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Was there a staff review by the sponsor following your review?

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide90

Focus on Sponsor’s Priorities and Interests

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide91

Show how topic (focus) has appeal to a broad audience or end users

Emphasize area with good potential for publications or other tangible end products

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide92

Ensure topic is not perceived as ‘old topic’ with little relevance today, or already researched

Consider obvious cooperation and collaboration that topic would encourage

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide93

Demonstrate how the topic will extend into other areas

Avoid development of research methods per se or descriptive work

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide94

Avoid topic that is not important to your geographic region

Relate topic to ‘big picture’ problems important to your particular region

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide95

Show topic contributes to science in general, or even better, to general public

Ensure topic can be addressed with realistic budget

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide96

Demonstrate precise understanding of topic and the need or problem

Ensure to convey that problem is feasible to solve through your research

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide97

Show the relevance of topic to your own organization’s goals

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide98

Writing the Proposal

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide99

Objectives

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide100

Provide details on the writing of the major components of aresearch proposal

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide101

Indicate for each major component of the proposal the

Purpose

Suggestions on content

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide102

Provide a solid and appropriate model for the writing of most research proposals

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide103

Basic Components of a Research Proposal

Summary/Abstract

Statement of Problem or Need

Project Description

Budget

(cont‘d on next slide)

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide104

Basic Components of a Research Proposal (cont’d)

Budget Explanation/Justification

Special Considerations

Curriculum Vitae

Appendices

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide105

Key Components of the Research Proposal

Summary

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide106

Your credibility

The problem or need you wish to address

The research objectives

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide107

The procedures and methods to be used

The cost of the project

The likely outcomes and benefits to be derived

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide108

Example of a Good Abstract

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide109

Example 7.1 The Summary - Capturing the Essence of the Proposal

The problem

Ipecac (Cephaelis ipecacuanha) is a small perennial shrub which in the past grew abundantly under shady areas of tropical

rain forests of Southeast Brazil and was employed by native

Brazilians who taught the medicinal properties to European

settlers. The ipecac drug has achieved worldwide usefulness

as an amoebicide and as a vomitive agent because of its

pharmacological active isquinoline alkaloids.

However, overharvesting of wild plants in Southeast Brazil and

negligence in replantiv ipecac plants after uprooting has led to a

severe decline of native ipecac populations.

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide110

.

Research objectives

Based on my previous investigations on biological

biodiversity of a number of medicinal plants in Brazil

(including work with a false ipecac), and the develop-

ment of an effective genomic DNA extractive tech-nique, I propose to evaluate the native populations of ipecac in Southeastern Brazil as part of a concerted effort to preserve and maintain sustainable production of the ipecac drug.

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide111

Specific objectives:

1) Locate endemic populations of ipecac in Southeast Brazil

and characterize morphological traits,

2) Describe local environmental and climatic conditions of populations,

3) Genetically evaluate existing variability within and among

populations, using RAPD markers,

4) Determine the levels of alcaloids and assess divergent biochemical patterns within and among each population, and

5) Establish a core collection of C. ipecacuanaha characterized morphologically, biochemically, and genetically.

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide112

Procedures and methods

Standard environmental parameters will be measured in the field including soil physical and chemical characteristics, vegetation density, and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) at the ipecac canopy. Morphological measurements will include shoot height, number and length of nodes, flower color, shoot base diameter, and anatomical characteristics of leaves. Also root volume, root color, and root weights will be collected.

(cont‘d on next slide)

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide113

Leaf samples will be used in genomic DNA extraction and amplified by polymerization chain reaction (PCR) with random primers, according to random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) methodology. Alkaloids will be analyzed by HPLC procedures currently in use. Establishments of plants in the greenhouse will be done by a combination of sexual and asexual propagation techniques.

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide114

.

Likely outcomes

The anticipated outcomes of this research include:

1) Identification of environmental conditions associated with plant development at specific locales,

2) The amplitude of the gene pool within each ipecac population,

(cont‘d on next slide)

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide115

3) The establishment of a core collection of ipecac that is thoroughly characterized for a number of factors and that will provide material for improvement through breeding, and

4) The training of a professional cadre with appropriate laboratory resources that can continue to investigate novel ways for preservation and rational use of ipecac and other medicinal plants.

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide116

Key Components of the Research Proposal Introduction -

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide117

Clearly establish who you are

Describe your organizational goals

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide118

Refer to the sponsor’s purpose and priorities as related to the research

Establish your credibility in the project topic area

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide119

Lead logically to the next section, the problem statement

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide120

Key Component of the Research Proposal

The Problem Statement -

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide121

Demonstrate a precise understanding of the problem or need

Clearly convey the focus of your project

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide122

Show the relationship of your project to a larger set of problems or issues and justify your emphasis

Establish the importance and significance of the problem

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide123

Justify why this problem is of particular interest to the sponsor

Demonstrate that it is feasible to solve the problem

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide124

State the outcome of the research in terms of human needs and societal benefits

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide125

Example 7.5 - Statement of Consequences

Rather than stating“no research has dealt with the role of insect A on foliar damage of tree species B ...“, state that “over 10,000 hectares of defoliation of tree species B in provice X has resulted in Y economic loss to the region. Although suspected as a primary defoliator in the area, insect A ...“ This could then be followed up with the possible benefits that would result from studying some defined aspect of insect A‘s role.

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide126

Key Component of the Research Proposal

Project Description -

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

subsections
Subsections

Objectives

Experimental plan

Dissemination

Facilities and equipment

Literature cited

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Types of Objectives

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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behavioral - anticipate that some particular human action will occur.

performance - a particular behavior will occur at an expected proficiency level over a specified time frame

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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process - manner in which something occurs is an end in itself.

product - end product is a tangible item.

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Examples

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Example 7.6 Behavioral Objective

Charcoal producers will be so pleased with a new, more efficient kiln that they will stop cutting in a protected area.

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Example 7.7 Performance Objective

Inoculation of Cassia siamea with a Glomus sp. will increase survival 15% after outplanting on poor sites.

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Example 7.8 Process Objective

Determining how timing of fertilizer applications and hormone treatments affect flowering in a species with low or irregular seed production will lead to increased seed production at predictable intervals.

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Example 7.9 Product Objective

Defining limits on temperature and moisture content of VAM inoculum will lead to inoculum that is usable by farmers with backyard nurseries.

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Statement of ObjectivesSuggestions

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Clearly describe your project’s objectives, hypotheses, or research questions

Signal the project’s objectives without being buried in unnecessary narrative

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Show that the objectives are important, significant and timely

Comprehensively describe the intended outcomes of the project

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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State the objectives, hypotheses, or questions in a way that they can be evaluated or tested later

Show why your project’s outcome is appropriate and important to the sponsor

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Hypothesis Development - Example

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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General statement but too broad: (not testable at this stage without further definitions)

“Outplanting seedlings with a full complement of rhizosphere microorganisms results in better field survival.”

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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More specific with specific organisms defined: (perhaps testable with further details, but doesn’t really address a “why” of expected outcome)

“Outplanting Glyricidia seedlings with both nitrogen-fixing and mycorrhizal root symbionts results in better field survival.”

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Specifically states why increased survival is expected (testable under defined conditions)

“Since Glyricidia seedlings often are outplanted into poor, highly degraded sites, colonization of nursery stock with rhizobial strain X and mycorrhizal fungi Y results in increased field survival after 1 yr.”

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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If this were stated as a null hypothesis for statistical analysis it might look like this:

“Even though Glyricidia seedlings often are outplanted into poor, highly degraded sites, colonization of nursery stock with rhizobial strain X and mycorrhizal fungi Y will NOT result in increased field survival after 1 yr.”

This is stating that a researcher testing field performance will find no difference between colonized and non-colonized seedlings.

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Experimental Plan

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

experimental plan
Experimental Plan
  • Describe the research project in detail
  • Experimental design
  • Statistical analysis
  • Evaluation
  • Methods and material

How ?

When ?

Why ?

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

time and task chart
Time and Task Chart

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Dissemination

of Results

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

dissemination of results
Dissemination of Results

Let others know about the project

Acknowledgement of the support by the sponsor

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Mode of dissemination (book, journals, video etc.)

Costs of dissemination

Use of the results

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Facilities & Equipment

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

facilities equipment
Facilities & Equipment

List all the facilities and equipment

Indicate which of the facilities need to be funded by the project

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Available facilities (laboratories, field sites, service facilities, computers, library etc.)

In-kind contributions by third parties

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Literature Cited

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

examples
Examples

LITERATURE CITED

Aldrich, P.R. & Hamrick, J.L. 1998. Reproductive dominance of pasture trees in a fragmented tropical forest mosaic. Science 281:103-105.

Appanah, S. & Chan, H.T. 1982. Methods of studying the reproductive biology of some Malaysian primary forest trees. Malaysian Forester 45: 10-20.

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Key Component of the Research Proposal

Budget -

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Preparation of Proposal Budget

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

budget
Budget

Direct costs

  • Personnel, materials & supplies, equipment, travel, support services, computer use and publications

Indirect costs

  • Percentage of direct costs to cover administrative overheads

“Hard“ cash contributions

In-kind contributions

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Questions to Consider

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Will your budget -

provide sufficient resources to carry out the project?

include a budget narrative that justifies the major items of the budget?

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Will your budget -

be in the format required by the sponsor and your organization?

provide enough detail that the reviewer can easily see the way the items were calculated?

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Will your budget -

show a clear relationship between the budget items and the research activities?

include any attachments or appendices to justify unusual requests?

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Will your budget -

identify evaluation and dissemination costs?

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Worksheet for Determining Personnel Expenses for Research

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Item

Description

Expense (Annual basis)

Primary responsibilityfor research and supervision

Principal Investigator

2 months of salary = $10,000

Benefits (20%) = $2,000

1 month cost-share by institute

(this will be time commitment of 25%)

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Item

Description

Expense (Annual basis)

Secondary responsibility for research and supervisor of GRA

Co-Principal Investigator

1 month of salary = $4000

Benefits (20%) = $800

1 month cost-share by institute

(this will be time commitment of 16%)

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Item

Description

Expense (Annual basis)

Half-time graduate student for field research

Graduate Research Assistant

Graduate research assistantship

stipend = $8,000

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Item

Description

Expense (Annual basis)

Hourly wages for 2 months in summer for two technicians to collect plant and soil samples

Parttime Field Assistants

2 asst X 60 days X $40/day = $4800

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Item

Description

Expense (Annual basis)

Secretarial Support

To assist in correspondence, manuscript preparation, ordering supplies, travel arrangements

2 months of salary = $3500

Benefits (15%) = $525

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Item

Description

Expense (Annual basis)

Office Space

Two scientist offices, secretary, GRA; estimated tobe 10% of department space

Provided by department

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Item

Description

Expense (Annual basis)

Indirect Costs (overhead)

Institute has set a rate of 40% of direct costs

Salary + benefits = $33,625

IDC = X0.4 = $13,450

Cost-share contribution of IDC

= 2 months salary + benefits

($5000 + $1000 + $4000 +$ 800) X

0.4 = $4320

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Budget Explanation/Justification

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

budget justification
Budget Justification
  • Provide reasoning for the budget items
  • Explain the basis for the fringe benefits used for personnel
  • Explain indirect costs

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Provide examples of the major material items

  • Specify the kind of transportation
  • Explain the basis publication and dissemination expenses

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Curriculum Vitae

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Example 7.13-A Sample Curriculum Vitae for Research Proposals

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Curriculum Vitae

Comments

Name:

Dr. Jose C. Lopez

Self explanatory

Title:

Associate Research Scientist

Address:

Include identity of who you work for with complete address. Include appropriate contacts by phone, email or other means.

Department of Silviculture

Forest Research Institute

(Street address or PO Box)

(City, Province, Country)

(Postal Code)

(Telephone number)

(FAX number)

(Email address)

Cont’d ...

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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… continued

Education:

List your most recent degrees first and then list in reverse chronological order. Make it clear from which institutions your degrees were conferred. Show year degree received and area of specialty

University X, D. For.,1988

- Forest Ecology

University X, M.S.,1984-

Forest Ecology

University Y, B.S., 1978 -

Forest Management

Cont’d ...

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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… continued

Employment:

List chronologically. Only show work experience that contributes to your research capabilities or understanding of the issues.

  • Forest Technician, Level 7,
  • Provincial Forest Service, (1978-1981)
  • Graduate Research Assistant,
  • Department of Forestry,
  • University X, (1984-1988)
  • Post-doctorate Associate,
  • Institute of Forest
  • Management, Federal Forest
  • Service, (1988-1990)
  • Assistant Research Scientist,
  • Department of Silviculture,
  • Forest Research Institute (1990 - 1998)
  • Associate Research Scientist,
  • Department of Silviculture, Forest Research Institute, (1998 - present)

Cont’d ...

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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… continued

Honors and Awards:

Show any awards, distinctions or honors that give evidence of your professional abilities and achievements.

  • Outstanding Graduate Dissertation,
  • Department of Forestry,
  • University X, 1988
  • Certificate of Merit for Research
  • Performance, Forest Research
  • Institute, 1992
  • Outstanding Research Paper,
  • National Association of Forest
  • Management, Annual
  • Conference, 1994
  • Elected Regional President,
  • National Association of Forest
  • Management, 1994-1996

Cont’d ...

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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… continued

Professional Activities:

List those professional activities that relate to your proposed topic of research. In this case, if your research pro-posal is in the area of forest ecology and silviculture, it would be of little value to list a professional activity that related to securing new members for the National Assoc. of Forest Mgn.

  • Silviculture Certification
  • Standards Committee,
  • National Association of Forest
  • Management, 1990-1992
  • Workshop Co-Chair, Silvicultural
  • Systems for Sustainability,
  • International Forestry
  • Congress, 12-13 August,
  • 1995
  • On-site Research Review Team,
  • Institute of Genetics, Federal
  • Research Council, 20-25
  • January, 1997.

Cont’d ...

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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… continued

Publications:

Last 5 years; 12 of career total of 2 book chapters and 19 refereed articles):

This is a very critical part of the CV. Some sponsors may only allow you to list recent publications and not total career publica-tions. If restricted to number of publications, select carefully to high-light those most relevant to your proposed research. Be accurate and con-sistent in your format.

Do not list papers in preparation or submitted unless accepted for publication (i.e. In Press).

Lopez, J. C. 1998. Silvicultural systems of subtropical plantations. Agroforestry (In Press).

Lopez, J.C. 1997. Light quality impacts on seedling establishment under XXX canopies. J. Silviculture 20: 143-150.

Lopez, J.C. and D.L. Jones. 1997. Changes in LAI of species XXX in plantations over the rotation length. Ecology 35:12-17.

(Continue with listing of publications)

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Appendices

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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“… reviewers may not read beyond the main proposal, and … if the appendices appear lengthy … reviewers will avoid reading through them, especially if they are limited in time.”

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Tips on Writing TechniquesandAppearance of Proposal

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

you have finalised your proposal
You have finalised your proposal:
  • Hard-hitting research need;
  • Concise set of objectives;
  • Critical methodology for achieving the objectives;
  • Necessary budget;
  • Cleverly summarised in a well-worded, exciting abstract.

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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What else is there left to do?

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Objective

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Suggestions and tips on writing style and mechanics

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Tips on Writing Techniques and Appearance of Proposal

Types of Readers

Fonts and Styles

Proofreading

Transitional tools

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Reading Style

Writing Technique

White space

Skimming

Headings

Ragged right margins

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Reading Style

Writing Technique

Bold type

Search Reading

Lists

Examples

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Reading Style

Writing Technique

Transitions

Critical Reading

Type style

Line spacing

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Writing Examples

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Lack of “White Space”

Following the prescribed fire treatment, plots will be forced into a visibly eroded state using a rainfall simulator. All erosion sub-plots will be treated with the same amount and intensity of simulated rainfall as determined by trial runs and other simulation experiments in the region. If a rainfall event occurs following the burn treatment, and it is significant enough to initiate an erosional event, then the rainfall simulation will not be applied. Since the study site is relatively small, it is reasonable to assume that the effects of a given rainfall event would be uniformly distributed. Plots will be surveyed for sediment loss throughout the life of the study. A collection catchment will be established on all plots to monitor both runoff and sediment loss. ...

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Use of Added “White Space”

Following the prescribed fire treatment, plots will be forced into a visibly eroded state using a rainfall simulator. All erosion sub-plots will be treated with the same amount and intensity of simulated rainfall as determined by trial runs and other simulation experiments in the region. ...

Plots will be surveyed for sediment loss throughout the life of the study. A collection catchment will be established on all plots to monitor both runoff and sediment loss. ...

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Use of Headings

Erosion Treatment

Following the prescribed fire treatment, plots will be forced into a visibly eroded state using a rainfall simulator. All erosion sub-plots will be treated with …

Plots will be surveyed for sediment loss throughout the life of the study. A collection catchment …

Surface Infiltration Measurement

Changes in infiltration rates will be evaluated using a disk permeameter (infiltrometer) ...

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Use of Left and Right Justified Text

Following the prescribed fire treatment, plots will be forced into a visibly eroded state using a rainfall simulator. All erosion sub-plots will be treated with the same amount and intensity of simulated rainfall as determined by trial runs and other simulation experiments in the region. …

Changes in infiltration rates will be evaluated using a disk permeameter (infiltrometer) where disturbance effects on the sorptivity (S) and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (K), a function of water content, are evaluated (Bouwer 1986, Green et al. 1986, ...

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Use of Left Justified and Right Ragged Text

Following the prescribed fire treatment, plots will be forced into a visibly eroded state using a rainfall simulator. All erosion sub-plots will be treated with the same amount and intensity of simulated rainfall as determined by trial runs and other simulation experiments in the region. …

Changes in infiltration rates will be evaluated using a disk permeameter (infiltrometer) where disturbance effects on the sorptivity (S) and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (K), a function of water content, are evaluated (Bouwer 1986, Green et al. ...

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Use of Underlined Headings

Erosion Treatment

Following the prescribed fire treatment, plots will be forced into a visibly eroded state using a rainfall simulator. All erosion sub-plots will be treated with …

Surface Infiltration Measurement

Changes in infiltration rates will be evaluated using a disk permeameter (infiltrometer) where disturbance effects on the sorptivity (S) and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (K), a function of water content, are evaluated ...

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Use of Bold Headings

Erosion Treatment

Following the prescribed fire treatment, plots will be forced into a visibly eroded state using a rainfall simulator. All erosion sub-plots will be treated with …

Surface Infiltration Measurement

Changes in infiltration rates will be evaluated using a disk permeameter (infiltrometer) where disturbance effects on the sorptivity (S) and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (K), a function of water content, are evaluated ...

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

lists
Lists
  • 2. Sectoral Policies
  • Achieving sustainable forest management in accordance with ITTO Guidelines,
  • Maintaining and developing its wood-based industries,
  • Fulfilling her obligations stipulated under the International Convention on Biodiversity Conservation of which she is one of the signatories, and
  • Developing a National policy and Strategies for the conservation and sustainable development of biodiversity.

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

transitions
Transitions
  • Addition
    • Also, again, and, and then, in addition, moreover, besides, next, further, furthermore, equally important, finally, likewise, first, second, third, last
  • Example
    • for example, for instance, thus, as an illustration, namely, specifically, in particular, that is, incidentally

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Result

    • therefore, thus, consequently, so, accordingly, as a result, hence, otherwise, then, that caused, that produced
  • Summary
    • as a result, hence, in short, in conclusion, as a consequence, finally, to sum up, therefore, in summary, at last

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

slide205

Fonts Type Facesand Point Sizes

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Serif Typefaces

Sans Serif Typefaces

(12 point size)

(12 point size)

Times New Roman

Arial

Courier New

(10 point size)

(10 point size)

Times New Roman

Arial

Courier New

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Post-Proposal Writing

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Objectives

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Indicate the need for internal review prior to final submission of a proposal

Suggest follow up procedures if the proposal is rejected

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Provide common reasons why proposals are rejected

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Common Reasons for Rejection

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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The science was not completely sound.

The methodology or approaches in the experimental section were unclear or vague.

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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The investigators were inexperienced in the experimental design or the methodology, i.e. reviewers not convinced that investigators were capable of accomplishing objectives.

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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The proposed research did not fit the mission or purpose of the grant program of the sponsor.

The research plan was not focused.

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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The literature review was incomplete and failed to establish that the proposed research was new and significant and not

repetitive.

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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The objectives did not give heed to the socio-economic situation of the country or region and thus may not be applicable.

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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The proposed budget did not match the proposal work plan.

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Is it research or development?

The proposal was not perceived as research.

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Group Research

- to understand the whole

  • multi- and inter-disciplinary
  • several institutions, scientists
  • one administration
  • synergy

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Administration

Duties

Discussion

Sponsor

  • one PI
  • management
  • need
  • duties

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Pilot Case 1

Pilot Case 1

Pilot Case 2

Pilot Case 2

Project Organisation

Project PartnersRegional Coordinators

Direct Beneficiaries

.

.

Intermediate

Implementation Agencies inLatin America

Implementation Agencies

in Africa

Implementation Agencies in Asia

Beneficiaries

(Facilitators

& Promoters)

Pilot Case 1West Africa

Pilot Case 2East Africa

Pilot Case 1West Africa

Forest Dept.

Comm. Reps.

.

.

Forest Dept.

Comm. Reps.

Forest Dept.

Comm. Reps.

Industry

.

.

Industry

Target GroupsForest Stakeholders

Industry

Environ. NGOs

Nat. Res. Inst.

Environ. NGOs

Environ. NGOs

Nat. Res. Inst.

Nat. Res. Inst.

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Regional Coordinators

Regional

Coordinators

Regional project implementation

Regional

project implementation

CATIE

CATIE

FAO (RLC /

FAO (RLC/

FORNESSA

FORNESSA

APAFRI

APAFRI

Chile)

Central

Central

Chile)

Africa

Africa

Asia Pacific

Asia Pacific

America

America

South. Am.

South. Am.

Pilot cases at national level

Pilot

cases

at

national

level

West

West Africa

Africa

South Asia

South Asia

Central

Central

South

South

America

America

America

America

East/South

Southeast

Southeast

East/SouthAfrica

Africa

Asia

Asia

Project

Project Advisory Services

Project

advisory

services

Project Coordination

coordination

FAO(FON / Rome)

FAO

ICRA

ICRA

ETFRN

ETFRN

IUFRO

IUFRO

(FON/

Rome

)

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

Supporting Partners

Supporting

Partners

example of review criteria international foundation for science ifs
Example of Review CriteriaInternational Foundation for Science (IFS)
  • Applicant Qualifications and Feasibility of Project
    • Applicant‘s training and experience
    • Available and requested resources
    • Realistic goals and time plan

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Scientific Quality

    • – A well-formulated hypothesis based on up-to- date knowledge of the problem and science
    • – A statistically and/or logically sound design of experiments or plans for trials and observations
    • – Relevant and up-to-date methods for sampling, laboratory work, measurements, etc.

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Relevance of Results to:

    • – Development applicability
    • – Scientific knowledge
    • – National priorities

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDCUpdate 2004

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Best wishes with your grant applications !

© C.P.P. Reid, Univ. ArizonaM. Kleine, IUFRO-SPDC Update 2004