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Biopsychology. The Biological Basis of Behavior. Neurons: Structure. Dendrites Cell Body Axon Myelin Sheath Nodes of Ranvier Terminal Buttons. p. 45. Normally Functioning Nerves. The Synapse. Synaptic Vesicles Synaptic Cleft Receptor Sites Presynaptic membrane Postsynaptic membrane

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  1. Biopsychology The Biological Basis of Behavior

  2. Neurons: Structure • Dendrites • Cell Body • Axon • Myelin Sheath • Nodes of Ranvier • Terminal Buttons p. 45

  3. Normally Functioning Nerves

  4. The Synapse • Synaptic Vesicles • Synaptic Cleft • Receptor Sites • Presynaptic membrane • Postsynaptic membrane • Neurotransmitters p. 47

  5. Neurotransmission • Resting Potential (-70 millivolts) • Threshold ( greater than -70 mv) • Action Potential ( positive) • Hyperpolerization (less than –70 mv) • Resting Potential (-70 mv)

  6. GradedPotential Threshold Resting Potential Action Potential All or None Response Hyperpolarization

  7. Effects of Neurotransmitters • Excitatory • Inhibitory

  8. Types of Neurotransmitters • Acetylcholine: ACh • Norephinephrine: NE • Dopamine: DA • Serotonin: 5-HT • Gamma-amino-butyric acid: GABA

  9. Acetylcholine (ACh): • found through out the central nervous system, autonomic nervous system, and all neuromuscular junctions. • Excitatory • Involved in muscle action, attention, learning, and memory • Too much: spasms • Too little: paralysis

  10. Norephinephrine: NE • Synonymous with Adrenalin • Found in ANS • Excitatory • Responsible for getting “pumped up” • Fight or Flight Response • Eating behavior • Carbo-craving

  11. Dopamine: DA • Reward system • Produced by neurons located in a region of the brain called the substantia nigra. • Involved in pleasure, movement, attention, and learning. • Degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons has been linked with Parkinson’s Disease. Too much dopamine is implicated in schizophrenia and Tourette’s .

  12. Serotonin: 5-HT • Found in the brain and spinal cord. • Inhibitory • Plays a role in the regulation of mood and is control of eating, sleep and arousal. Has also been implicated in the regulation of pain and dreaming. • Destroyed by MAO • SSRI’s (Prozac, Zoloft)

  13. Gamma-amino-butyric acid: GABA • Found through out the brain and spinal cord, in very high concentrations compared to other Neurotransmitters. • Inhibitory • Is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. Abnormal levels of GABA have been linked to eating and sleeping disorders.

  14. Nervous System N.S. Peripheral Central • Central Brain & Spinal Cord • Peripheral Somatic ??? Autonomic Parasympathetic Sympathetic Somatic Autonomic Sympathetic ParaSymp p. 51

  15. Sympathetic Fight or Flight Parasympathetic Maintenance & Refuel Autonomic Nervous System • Eyes open Wide • Mouth Goes Dry • Hr Increase • Start to Sweat • Eyes constrict • Mouth Waters • Digestion • Blood away from muscles

  16. What is the difference between a neurotransmitter and a hormone? Where are the seats of consciousness? The Endocrine System The Brain Stem

  17. Motivation & Emotion in the Brain • Hypothalamus • Limbic System • Thalamus

  18. Cortex • Parietal Lobe • Temporal Lobe • Occipital Lobe • Frontal Lobe

  19. Left Hemisphere Right side of the body Language Wernike & Broca Right Hemisphere Left side of the body Creativity Math & Spatial tasks Nonverbal - Emotion Brain Lateralization

  20. Q: What is the cause of ambidexterity? A:Handedness (the preference to use one hand over the other) is species-specific. In humans, about 90% prefer to use their right hand. What does this mean? Recall that the human brain is divided into a right and a left hemisphere. Typically, the left hemisphere in humans is dominant. We're not really sure why the left rather than the right (or both) becomes dominant, but probably it reflects the early fetal environment, particularly hormonal factors. Since the left hemisphere controls the right side of the body, people with left hemisphere dominance will be right-handed. For left-handers and for those who are ambidextrous (can use both hands with the same level of skill), the right hemisphere tends to be dominant. Interestingly, language, which typically is the province of the dominant hemisphere, is equally likely to reside in either the left or right hemisphere for non-right-handed people. Those who are left-handed or ambidextrous also tend to have a thicker corpus callosum (the bundle of fibers joining the two hemispheres).

  21. Genetics • Structure and Function • Gene therapy • Nature vs. Nurture

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