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Atomic Structure Timeline. Use the following information to complete the lecture handout. On tomorrow’s quiz, you will be expected to… draw the atomic models match scientists to their experiments and discoveries place the models in chronological order. Democritus (400 B.C.).

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atomic structure timeline

Atomic Structure Timeline

Use the following information to complete the lecture handout.

On tomorrow’s quiz, you will be expected to…

draw the atomic models

match scientists to their experiments and discoveries

place the models in chronological order

democritus 400 b c
Democritus (400 B.C.)
  • Proposed that matter was composed of tiny indivisible particles
  • Not based on experimental data
  • Greek: atomos
alchemy next 2000 years
Alchemy (next 2000 years)
  • Mixture of science and mysticism.
  • Lab procedures were developed, but alchemists did not perform controlled experiments like true scientists.
john dalton 1807
John Dalton (1807)
  • British Schoolteacher
    • based his theory on others’ experimental data
  • Billiard Ball Model
    • atom is a uniform, solid sphere
john dalton
John Dalton

Dalton’s Four Postulates

1. Elements are composed of small indivisible particles called atoms.

2. Atoms of the same element are identical. Atoms of different elements are different.

3. Atoms of different elements combine together in simple proportions to create a compound.

4. In a chemical reaction, atoms are rearranged, but not changed.

henri becquerel 1896
Henri Becquerel (1896)
  • Discovered radioactivity
    • spontaneous emission of radiation from the nucleus
  • Three types:
    • alpha () - positive
    • beta () - negative
    • gamma () - neutral
j j thomson 1903
J. J. Thomson (1903)
  • Cathode Ray Tube Experiments
    • beam of negative particles
  • Discovered Electrons
    • negative particles within the atom
  • Plum-pudding Model
j j thomson 19038
J. J. Thomson (1903)

Plum-pudding Model

  • positive sphere (pudding) with negative electrons (plums) dispersed throughout
ernest rutherford 1911
Ernest Rutherford (1911)
  • Gold Foil Experiment
  • Discovered the nucleus
    • dense, positive charge in the center of the atom
  • Nuclear Model
ernest rutherford 191110
Ernest Rutherford (1911)
  • Nuclear Model
    • dense, positive nucleus surrounded by negative electrons
niels bohr 1913
Niels Bohr (1913)
  • Bright-Line Spectrum
    • tried to explain presence of specific colors in hydrogen’s spectrum
  • Energy Levels
    • electrons can only exist in specific energy states
  • Planetary Model
niels bohr 191312
Niels Bohr (1913)
  • Planetary Model
    • electrons move in circular orbits within specific energy levels

Bright-line spectrum

erwin schr dinger 1926
Erwin Schrödinger (1926)
  • Quantum mechanics
    • electrons can only exist in specified energy states
  • Electron cloud model
    • orbital: region around the nucleus where e- are likely to be found
erwin schr dinger 192614
Erwin Schrödinger (1926)

Electron Cloud Model (orbital)

  • dots represent probability of finding an e-not actual electrons
james chadwick 1932
James Chadwick (1932)
  • Discovered neutrons
    • neutral particles in the nucleus of an atom
  • Joliot-Curie Experiments
    • based his theory on their experimental evidence
james chadwick 193216
James Chadwick (1932)

Neutron Model

  • revision of Rutherford’s Nuclear Model