Ap psychology
1 / 50

AP Psychology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Updated On :

AP Psychology. Ms. Simon September 17-24, 2009 Introduction to Research Methods. Hindsight Bias. The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. Scientific Theories. Set of principles that organize and predict behaviors or events Link observed facts

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'AP Psychology' - Mercy

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Ap psychology l.jpg

AP Psychology

Ms. Simon

September 17-24, 2009

Introduction to Research Methods

Hindsight bias l.jpg
Hindsight Bias

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it

Scientific theories l.jpg
Scientific Theories

  • Set of principles that organize and predict behaviors or events

  • Link observed facts

  • Imply hypotheses that offer testable predictions

Subfields of psychology l.jpg
Subfields of Psychology

  • Basic Psychology- research

  • Applied Psychology- research put into practice as therapist

  • Psychiatry- a medical field- deals with mental disorders- prescribe medication

Slide5 l.jpg

There are three main types of research methods in psychology:




Descriptive study l.jpg
Descriptive Study psychology::

  • Case Study- psychologists study one individual in great depth in hopes of revealing universal principles

Case study pros l.jpg
Case Study Pros psychology:

  • Detailed information

  • Unusual Cases

  • Inexpensive

  • Few ethical considerations

Slide8 l.jpg

The Problem with the Case Study psychology::

An individual may be atypical

Cannot generalize results

Difficult to Manipulate Variables

Difficult to quantify data

Naturalistic observation l.jpg
Naturalistic Observation psychology:

  • Observe subjects in natural habitats without interacting

Survey method l.jpg
Survey Method psychology:

  • Relies on questions answered by a group of people in interviews or questionnaires

Survey method12 l.jpg
Survey Method psychology:

  • Experimenter must identify the population to study

  • Random sampling picking members from a population randomly to ensure a representative sample

Survey method13 l.jpg
Survey Method psychology:

Wording effects l.jpg
Wording Effects psychology:

  • In a study by AMNH, 88% of all respondents said that they were interested in plants and trees, but only 39% said they were interested in botany.

  • One out of five Americans (22 percent) doubted that the Holocaust had occurred. 12% said they weren’t sure

What to watch for l.jpg
What to Watch for… psychology:

  • Order of choices

  • Is the time frame specified?

  • How personal or direct is the wording?

  • Is there a cultural bias?

Correlational studies l.jpg
Correlational Studies psychology:

  • Correlational studies assess the association between two or more characteristics of interest without ascribing causes

  • Is a correlational study an experiment?

Correlation coefficient l.jpg
Correlation coefficient psychology:

Example: R= + .37

Illusory correlation l.jpg
Illusory Correlation psychology:

  • When we believe there is a relationship between two things, we are likely to notice and recall instances that confirm our belief

Slide21 l.jpg

What is the correlation? psychology:

  • 1) good looks/popularity

  • 2) self-esteem/depression

  • 3) brain size/intelligence

  • 4) money/happiness

  • 5) Education/length of life

Correlation determining causation l.jpg
Correlation: determining causation psychology:

There is a strong correlation between people who ate oatmeal for breakfast as a child and cancer versus people who ate Frosted Flakes for breakfast as a child

Friday s exam what to study l.jpg
Friday’s Exam: What to Study psychology:

  • About 40% Historical Approaches, 60% Research Methods

  • Study mostly from Class Discussion!

  • Format: Multiple Choice, One short AP exam style essay question, short answer and/or matching

Research methods l.jpg
Research Methods psychology:

Experimental method l.jpg
Experimental Method psychology:

  • Researcher manipulates one variable (independent variable) and observes the effect on another variable (dependent variable)

  • Allows one to show a causal relationship

Slide26 l.jpg

Slide27 l.jpg

Confounding variable group?:

external differences between the experimental group and the control group other than those

resulting from

the independent


Confounding variables l.jpg
Confounding Variables group?

1) Placebo Effect

experimental results caused by expectations alone

Confounding variables29 l.jpg
Confounding Variables group?

  • Demand Characteristics- participants form an interpretation of the experiment's purpose and unconsciously change their behavior accordingly

Slide30 l.jpg

How can we control for group?

confounding variables?

Slide31 l.jpg

How can we control for confounding variables? group?

1) Random Assignment

method of assigning subjects to groups to minimize pre-existing differences between those groups

This is an example of Between subjects design: Participants in the experimental and control group are different individuals

Slide32 l.jpg

How can be control for confounding variables? group?

2) Within subjects design

Technique where subjects serve as control and experimental group.

3) Twin Studies:

Confounding variables33 l.jpg
Confounding Variables group?

  • Experimenter bias- researcher’s expectations about the outcome of a study influence the results

    Q: How can we eliminate experimenter bias?

How can we eliminate experimenter bias l.jpg
How can we eliminate experimenter bias? group?

  • Multiple Experimenters

    2. Double blind procedure- research design in which neither the experimenter or the participants know who is in the experimental versus control group

Ap psychology35 l.jpg

AP Psychology group?

Ms. Simon

September 24, 2009

Experimental Statistics

Do now l.jpg
Do Now: group?

  • From your reading: Why do we need operational definitions?

How do psychologists present data l.jpg
How do psychologists present data? group?

  • Frequency Distributions

Statistics l.jpg
Statistics group?

  • Statistical significance (p) is the likelihood that the observed difference between groups results from a real difference rather than chance alone

  • What’s a good p value?

1 large difference between the two means l.jpg
1) Large difference between the two means group?

) Large difference between the two means

When is data statistically significant42 l.jpg
When is data statistically significant? group?

2) Small standard deviations

But what s a standard deviation l.jpg
But… what’s a standard deviation? group?

A standard deviation is the degree by which a score varies from the mean

You don’t need to know the equation!

Slide46 l.jpg

When is data statistically significant? group?

3) Large Sample Size

Mean median mode l.jpg
Mean, Median, Mode group?

6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 10, 10, 11, 11, 11, 11, 12, 12, 13

What’s the mode?

What’s the median?

Slide49 l.jpg

Skewed Data group?

Homework l.jpg
Homework: group?

  • Activity: design an experiment to see if aggression is related to violent TV watching

    Be sure to address random selection, random assignment, experimental versus control group, confounding variables, and how you will minimize the effects of experimental and observer bias.