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Advising Students Toward a Greater Appreciation for Diversity. NACADA Conference, October 20 th 2006, Indianapolis. Ty M. Cruce Julie M. Williams John V. Moore Indiana University. Beginning College Survey of Student Engagement. Overview. Warrant for Study Questions of Interest

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advising students toward a greater appreciation for diversity

Advising Students Toward a Greater Appreciation for Diversity

NACADA Conference, October 20th 2006, Indianapolis

Ty M. Cruce

Julie M. Williams

John V. Moore

Indiana University

Beginning College Survey of Student Engagement

overview
Overview
  • Warrant for Study
  • Questions of Interest
  • Data Sources and Sample
  • Findings
  • Implications for Practice
warrant for study
Warrant for Study
  • University of Michigan Affirmative Action Cases

(Gratz, et al. v. Bollinger, et al. & Grutter, et al. v. Bollinger, et al.)

    • The Compelling Need for Diversity (Include Individual & Societal Benefits)

“A racially and ethnically diverse university student body has far-ranging and significant benefits for all students, non-minorities and minorities alike. Students learn better in a diverse educational environment, and they are better prepared to become active participants in our pluralistic, democratic society once they leave such a setting.” (Expert report – Patricia Gurin)

“…the business world has not failed to recognize and appreciate the importance of diversity. Corporations are making significant efforts in recruiting and retaining a workforce that values diversity and that can effectively conduct business worldwide. “

(Expert report – William Bowen)

warrant for study1
Warrant for Study
  • Commission on the Future of Higher Education
    • “Too few Americans prepare for, participate in, and complete higher education – especially those underserved and nontraditional groups who make up an ever-greater proportion of the population.” (approx. 1/3 of whites obtain bachelor’s degrees by age 25–29, just 18% of blacks and 10% of Latinos )
    • “… it is imperative that we maintain a system of higher education that meets the needs of our diverse population, and in particular needs of traditionally underserved communities; provides enhanced opportunities for lifelong learning; and addresses the economic and workforce needs of the country. “
warrant for study2
Warrant for Study
  • Pascarella & Terenzini: How College Affects Students
  • Findings Related to Diversity
    • Having friends across racial-ethnic groups and being part of an interracial friendship group:
      • Increases positive racial-ethnic attitudes and values.
      • Increases student knowledge and understanding of others.
      • Increases academic skill development and knowledge acquisition.
      • Increases self-reported gains in various areas of learning.
      • Has a positive impact on ethically oriented behaviors. (Ex: Increased community service involvement)
warrant for study3
Warrant for Study
  • Academic Advising Programs – CAS Standards
    • An AAP must incorporate student learning and student development in its mission.
    • An AAP should enhance overall educational experiences
    • An AAP will identify relevant and desirable student learning and development outcomes and provide programs and services that encourage achievement of those outcomes [including] …appreciation of diversity.
    • An AAP must promote educational experiences that are characterized by open and continuous communication that deepen understanding of one’s own identity, culture and heritage, and that of others.
data sources
Data Sources

Beginning College Survey of Student Engagement

National Survey of Student Engagement

  • Annual survey of first-year and senior students
  • 2006 administration at 571institutions
  • Administered during the spring semester
  • Annual survey of first-year students at baccalaureate degree-granting institutions
  • 2005-2006 pilot administration at 70 institutions
  • Administered prior to start of classes, usually at orientation or welcome week
study sample
Study Sample
  • Student Sample
    • BCSSE 26,986 entering first-year students
    • NSSE 10,425 first-year students in spring (39%)
      • 59% Female, 41% Male
      • 77% White, 23% of color
      • 64% have at least one parent with a bachelor’s degree
  • Institutional Sample
    • 60 Baccalaureate degree-granting institutions
    • 60% Private, 40% Public
    • Undergraduate student body ranges from <400 to >35,000
    • Barron’s selectivity index ranges from non- to most-competitive
questions of interest
Questions of Interest
  • How do entering college students’ openness to diverse perspectives differ by their backgrounds (e.g., gender, race, parents’ education)?
  • How strong is the relationship between entering college students’ openness to diverse perspectives and their engagement with diverse perspective during the first year of college?
  • Holding constant their entering openness to diverse perspectives, how do students’ engagement with diverse perspectives during the first year of college differ by their backgrounds (e.g., gender, race, parents’ education)?
openness to diverse perspectives
Openness to Diverse Perspectives
  • How important is it to you to do the following:
    • Have serious conversations with students of a different race or ethnicity than your own
    • Have serious conversations with students who are very different from you in terms of their religious beliefs, political opinions, or personal values
    • Examine the strengths and weaknesses of your own views on a topic or issue
    • Try to better understand someone else's views by imagining how an issue looks from his or her perspective
    • Learn something that changed the way you understand an issue or concept

Responses range from ‘Not Important’ to ‘Very Important’

question of interest 1
Question of Interest #1
  • How do entering college students’ openness to diverse perspectives differ by their characteristics?
  • Examples:
    • Are males more open to diverse perspectives than females?
    • Are private high school students more open to diverse perspectives than public high school students?

Have some ideas? Its time to test your knowledge…

openness to diverse perspectives1
Openness to Diverse Perspectives

Imagine two hypothetical college-bound students…

Who are similar in all of the following ways but one:

Gender High School Grades

Race High School Leadership

Parents’ Education High School Type

Degree Aspirations College Selectivity

test your knowledge 7
Students who attend public high schools are more open to diverse perspectives than students who attend private high schools.

True

False

Test Your Knowledge #7
openness to diverse perspectives2
Openness to Diverse Perspectives
  • “Test Your Knowledge” Scores
    • 7-8 Good Job!
    • 5-6 Not Bad!
    • 1-4 This has been educational, No?
summary of findings
Summary of Findings
  • Differences in students’ openness to diverse perspectives seem most pronounced by:
    • Gender
    • Race
    • Degree Aspirations
    • High School GPA
    • High School Leadership Involvement
openness to diverse perspectives3
Openness to Diverse Perspectives
  • A Hypothetical: Imagine Two Students
    • Case 1

White male attending non-competitive college; average student at a public high school; does not expect to go on beyond the bachelor’s degree.

    • Case 2

Hispanic female attending moderately competitive college; average student at public high school; expects to earn a master’s degree.

engagement with diverse perspectives
Engagement with Diverse Perspectives
  • How often did you do the following:
    • Have serious conversations with students of a different race or ethnicity than your own
    • Have serious conversations with students who are very different from you in terms of their religious beliefs, political opinions, or personal values
    • Examine the strengths and weaknesses of your own views on a topic or issue
    • Try to better understand someone else's views by imagining how an issue looks from his or her perspective
    • Learn something that changed the way you understand an issue or concept

Responses range from ‘Never’ to ‘Very Often’

questions of interest 2 3
Questions of Interest #2 & #3
  • What is the relationship between entering college students’ openness to diverse perspectives and their engagement with diverse perspectives during college?
  • How does students’ engagement with diverse perspectives differ by their backgrounds?
  • Examples:
    • Are males more engaged with diverse perspectives than females?
    • Are private high school students more engaged with diverse perspectives than public high school students?

Have some ideas? Its time to test your knowledge…

engagement with diverse perspectives1
Engagement with Diverse Perspectives

Imagine two hypothetical college-bound students…

Who are similar in all of the following ways but one:

Openness to Diverse Perspectives High School Grades

Gender High School Leadership

Race High School Type

Parents’ Education College Selectivity

Degree Aspirations

test your knowledge 9
Students who are more open to diverse perspectives are more engaged with diverse perspectives during college.

True

False

Test Your Knowledge #9
test your knowledge 13
Involvement in high school leadership activities increases the students’ engagement with diverse perspectives.

True

False

Test Your Knowledge #13
test your knowledge 14
Students from public high schools are less engaged with diverse perspectives than students from private high schools.

True

False

Test Your Knowledge #14
test your knowledge 15
Having a greater number of close friends attend the same college increases one’s engagement with diverse perspectives.

True

False

Test Your Knowledge #15
test your knowledge 17
Students who attend selective colleges are more engaged with diverse perspectives than students who attend non-selective colleges.

True

False

Test Your Knowledge #17
openness to diverse perspectives4
Openness to Diverse Perspectives
  • “Test Your Knowledge” Scores
    • 7-9 Good Job!
    • 5-6 Not Bad!
    • 1-4 This has been educational, No?
summary of findings1
Summary of Findings
  • Openness to Diverse Perspectives Matters!
  • Holding constant students’ openness, differences in students’ engagement with diverse perspectives are most evident by:
    • Gender
    • Race
    • High School Leadership Involvement
    • Learning Community Membership
    • Selectivity of the College Attended
engagement with diverse perspectives2
Engagement with Diverse Perspectives
  • A Hypothetical: Imagine Two Students
    • Case 1

White male attending non-competitive college; average student at a public high school; does not expect to go on beyond the bachelor’s degree; has several close friends attending college; not in a learning community; is notvery open to diverse perspectives.

    • Case 2

Hispanic female attending moderately competitive college; average student at public high school; expects to earn a master’s degree; has no close friends attending college; not in a learning community; is very open to diverse perspectives.

promoting openness to diversity matters
Promoting Openness to Diversity Matters
  • Individual diversity development is an uncomfortable developmental process for most people because otherness, makes individuals uncomfortable.
  • Chavez, Guido-DiBrito, Mallory (2003)
promoting openness to diversity matters1
Promoting Openness to Diversity Matters
  • Two Aspects of Effective Educational Practice indicated a significant total and direct effect on a cognitive skills/knowledge and student openness to diversity.
    • Effective Teaching/Interactions with Faculty
      • Use of higher order questioning techniques
      • Instructor feedback to students
      • Instructional clarity and organization
    • Interactions with Peers
      • Instructional emphasis on cooperative learning
      • Course and non-course related interactions with peers

(Cruce, Wolniak, Siefert & Pascarella, 2006)

implications for practice
Implications for Practice
  • Academic Advising Program Guidelines
    • AAP’s should promote educational experiences that are characterized by open and continuous communication that deepen understanding of one’s own identity, culture and heritage, and that of others.
    • Some starting points:
      • Identify and celebrate your own heritage and display respect for the heritage of others
      • Describe the variables that you believe comprise diversity
      • Read and discuss research related to diversity
      • Examine and explore your own biases
        • Visit Project Implicit website https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/ . Psychologists at Harvard, UVA, and the University of Washington have developed Hidden Bias Tests. 
implications for practice1
Implications for Practice
  • Help students select course offerings that will increase understanding of one’s own and others’ identity and cultures.
    • Do you know the courses that offer rich collaborative learning opportunities on your campus?
  • Help students seek involvement with people different from oneself.
    • Are students involved in diverse extracurricular activities?
  • Instill a sense of accountability to the larger community.
    • Are students participating in service learning opportunities in/out of the classroom?
implications for practice2
Implications for Practice
  • Encourage social/cultural diversity experiences to be included in student orientation programs.
  • Encourage diversity experience requirements be incorporated into the formal curriculum.
  • Help recognize those who creatively introduce diverse perspectives into their classrooms or other service to students.
  • Use student feedback related to diversity courses or experiences you’ve recommended to inform your future advising efforts.
implications for practice3
Implications for Practice
  • Summary Points
    • Help students identify diverse curricular and co-curricular opportunities and encourage them to participate.
    • Maximum benefits result from a broad-based campus culture that supports effective educational practice.
    • Effective practice related to diversity experiences does not necessarily require significant funding investments, however, it requires purposeful action.
national survey of student engagement3
National Survey of Student Engagement

Other Suggestions

&

Discussion

contact information
Contact Information
  • Email: Ty Cruce tcruce@indiana.edu

Julie Williams williaj4@indiana.edu

John Moore jmooreii@indiana.edu

Presentation materials from this session

are available on the NSSE website:

www.nsse.iub.edu

NSSE efforts have been supported by The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, The Pew Forum on Undergraduate Learning, The Lumina Foundation, and the Center for Inquiry into the Liberal Arts at Wabash College.