Ellis Island Visual Project. RUSSIA. Map Continued. Origin of Ethnic Group. Many Jewish Russians came to the U.S. in the late 19 th century early 20 th century to avoid persecution and their economic problems.
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Ellis Island Visual Project RUSSIA
Origin of Ethnic Group • Many Jewish Russians came to the U.S. in the late 19th century early 20th century to avoid persecution and their economic problems. • Their living conditions were comparable to the Irish undergoing the Potato Famine; Shacks crowded with their whole families and barely enough to eat. • In 1870 the Russian government revoked freedom of worship, draft exemption, and legal autonomy from all of its citizens, stimulating Russian Jewish emigration. • The government also sponsored the “Cold Program” and “Russification Program” which were both created to “stamp out” the different ethnic groups in the country.
Jewish Emigration From Russia • Between 1820 and 1920 over 3,250,000 people emigrated from Russia to the United States • The 1920 census showed that 392,049 American citizens had been born in Russia • Between 1880 and 1924, 2.2 million Russian Jews immigrated to America • The third wave of Jewish immigrants to America was from Russia 1880 - 1928
Reasons for leaving Russia • Raids through the country • Anti-Semitism and pogroms • Feared the riots that went on and that the riots might lead to a pogrom • The government was changing all the time • The Germans came and were raping women • The Bolsheviks took everything from the people • The Russian Revolution • People left because they knew they would lose everything Joseph Stalin, leader of the Soviet Union 1928-1953
Jacob Mithelstadt and his family from Russia at Ellis Island in 1905 Russian Jewish immigrants, 1911
Russian Expectations of America Main Expectations ---Did not necessarily expect streets of gold, but there were other more reasonable expectations: ---Spoke of higher wages, many available jobs, and easier land to acquire than in their former country. ---They had heard about poor factories and living conditions from letters, so knew that wouldn’t be too good ---Russian nobles and intellectuals expected respect, even while not in native country
Russian Expectations of America The Golden Door? Term “Golden Door” came from words inscribed on Statue of Liberty: Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses, yearning to breathe free Send these, the homeless, tempest-tossed to me: I lift my lamp beside the golden door.
Russian Expectations of America Established Truths? ---Allured by Declaration of Independence and message of “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal…” ---Attracted by promise of religious and political liberties in Pennsylvania and other states
Trades and Crafts Russian immigrants brought with them several trades and crafts that would enrich life in the United States Few Russian groups refused to assimilate into American culture, so many did not keep their traditional crafts and lifestyle. Russians tended to follow trades similar to what they had done in Russia: sewing, tailoring, other non-industrial jobs A Russian man sells traditional Russian crafts. A family assembles pieces of clothing
Tappan Shoe Factory, Chicago, 1910 Trades and Crafts Russians also worked in the following types of factories: cigar, hat, silk, and shoe factories
Influence Of Russian Entertainment Russian Immigrants usually unskilled laborers enjoyed to represent their Elite Culture, which they left behind. They wished to fondly remember their homeland's entertainments such as Plays and Theatre.
Immigrants longing to express their Foreign culture developed rich performances which became popular in the Cities At First these performances held little impact on American culture but that would change.
An example of a Russian influence is the success of singing star Sophie Tucker who came to the United states as an Infant. She began her influences as a young ten year old girl who sang in family cafes, before her style grew more popular bringing her to Broadway in “Last Of the Red Hot Mamas”
Lillian Kaiz: Razhon, Russia • Lillian Kaiz came by boat to Ellis Island as a child in 1920. She was born in Razhon Russia, in the Kiev area, in 1913. • Her family decided to leave Russia because of the Communist Revolution that was going on.. When the Anti-Semitic Cossacks attacked her house in the middle of the night and demanded money, they made the final decision to immigrate to the U.S. • Her family had owned a flour mill, and when they left Russia, the whole family came, with the exception of her 2 uncles and an aunt who stayed behind. • She was detained in Ellis Island for about 3 weeks, going through the process. • They were able to come to the United States because her father was already in Chicago; He owned a specialty foods store, and was a policeman for a short period of time. • Although she experienced the full effects of the Great Depression in the 1930s, it was still much better than being in Russia with the revolution. She still continued to go to school while her father kept a newspaper stand to earn money for the family.
Image Bibliography • Frederic, David. “Pictures of France.” 7 Nov 2006 http://frederic.david77.free.fr/book/page001.htm • Liberty.” 7 Nov 2006 http://www.putsmans.com • “Russia.” Mantrav International. 11/7/06. <http://www.mantrav.co.uk/images/russia/russia-hr.jpg>. • “Russia Map.” Yahoo! Travel. 11/6/06. <http://us.i1.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/i/travel/dg/maps/e5/750x750_russia_m.gif>. • “Russian Map.” Mountain High Maps. 11/6/06. <http://www.bugbog.com/images/maps/russia_map.jpg>. • “Russian Immigrant Children.” Canada Science and Technology Museum. 7 Nov 2006 http://imagescn.technomuses.ca/people/index_choice.cfm?id=30&photoid=12470973 • “Russian Jewish Family.” firstname.lastname@example.org 11/6/06. <http://www.cjc.ca/archives/photo/PC06- full.JPG>. • Simonov, Pavel. “Russian Intelligence Acted Against Americans in Iraq.” Global Challenge Research. 6 Nov 2006 http://www.axisglobe.com/article.asp?article=499- • The Ship List. 6 Nov. 2006 <http://www.theshipslist.com/pictures/russian.htm>.
Bibliography • “Acculturation and Assimilation.” Russian Americans. 6 Nov 2006 <http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Pa-Sp/Russian-Americans.html> • Blumenthal, Shirley. Coming to America. New York: Delacorte P, 1981. • Cahan, Abraham. "The Russian Jew in America." July 1898. 6 Nov. 2006 <http://tenant.net/Community/LES/cahan5.html>. • Kaiz, Lillian. Immigrant Russian Oral History. NY,NY. 11/1.(Ellis Island Library) • Leinwand, Gerald. American Immigration. New York: An Impact Book, 1995 • Magocsi, Paul. "Russian Americans." Countries and Their Cultures. 6 Nov. 2006 <http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Pa-Sp/Russian-Americans.html>. • "Polish/Russia." Immigration. 6 Nov. 2006 <http://memory.loc.gov/learn/features/immig/polish6.html>. • "Russian Immigrants." Spartacus Educational. 5 Nov. 2006 <http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAErussia.htm>. • “Russian Jewish Immigration to the United States in the late 19th Century.” Needham 11/6/06. <http://nhs.needham.k12.ma.us/cur/kane98/kane_p6_immig/russian/eklbab.html>. • Van Etten, Ida M. "Russian Jews as Desirable Immigrants." 1893. 6 Nov. 2006 <http://www.tenant.net/Community/LES/vanetten.html>.
Credits Page • Vanessa- Map showing origin of ethnic group, profiles of specific people • Freddie- Particular trades or crafts that they brought with them and used in the U.S., title page • Keith- Map showing specific areas of settlement in the United States, Reasons for leaving country of origin, credits page • Justin- Customs that have become a part of the culture of the U.S. • Andrew- Expectations upon arrivals in the United States, powerpoint animations