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LATG: Chapters 12-13 Common Diseases of Lab Animals Lab Animal Serology. Rats and Mice. Sendai Virus : affects mice, rats, hamsters, and guinea pigs highly contagious and can be fatal in young affects immune system; worsened by stress

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Latg chapters 12 13 common diseases of lab animals lab animal serology l.jpg

LATG: Chapters 12-13Common Diseases ofLab AnimalsLab Animal Serology


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Rats and Mice

  • Sendai Virus: affects mice, rats, hamsters, and guinea pigs

    • highly contagious and can be fatal in young

    • affects immune system; worsened by stress

    • clinical signs: dyspnea, chattering respiratory sounds, decreased litter size and stunted pups

    • RNA virus, Paramyxovirus (parainfluenza)

    • natural infection occurs via respiratory tract

    • dirty bedding transfer inadequate for detection


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Rats and Mice

  • Mycoplasmosis (CRD, MRM):

    • Mycoplasma pulmonis: causative agent

    • major problem in rats; stress worsens condition

    • primarily affects the respiratory tract

    • may cause inner or middle ear infection (head tilt)

    • can become endemic and difficult to eradicate

    • causes severe pathologic lesions in the lungs: abscesses, red to gray consolidation


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Rats and Mice

  • CAR (Cilia associated respiratory) bacillus:

    • gram negative bacteria attached to cilia

    • respiratory disease or lesions in rats, mice, rabbits, swine

    • require special staining techniques on histopathology

    • dirty bedding inadequate for detection


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Rats and Mice

  • Mouse Hepatitis Virus (MHV):

    • RNA, Cornavirus, affects mice only

    • one of the most common diseases of mice and highly contagious (still big problem today)

    • fecal-oral and aerosol transmission

    • encephalitis, hepatitis, or enteritis

    • fatal wasting disease in nude mice

    • causes immunosuppression during infection


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Rats and Mice

  • Sialodacryoadenitis Virus (SDAV):

    • RNA, Cornavirus (related to rat cornavirus and MHV), affect rats only

    • affects the salivary glands of rats

    • swelling in neck region, ophthalmic lesions (corneal ulcer, etc.), chromodacryorrhea, chromorhinorrhea

    • highly contagious and spread quickly, but develop immunity and cannot be reinfect

    • eradication: stop breeding and burns out

    • Harlan: recently had outbreak in Surgical Facility


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Rats and Mice

  • Ectromelia Virus (Mousepox):

    • DNA, Orthopoxvirus, affects mice only

    • rare in US, but several outbreaks have occurred in the past 5 yrs.

    • causes high morbidity and mortality

    • causes hepatitis, generalized rash (pox lesions)

    • transmitted through imported mice, injection of biological materials (serum, tumors) into mice

    • other signs: facial swelling, conjunctivitis, necrosis of distal limbs


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Rats and Mice

  • Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV):

    • RNA, Arenavirus, affects mice, hamsters

    • ZOONOTIC agent

    • only mice and hamsters transmit the agent

    • transmission through tissue cultures, transplantable tumors, feral animals

    • four different forms depending on animals age


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Rats and Mice

  • Pinworms (Oxyurids)

    • Syphacia oblevata, S. muris, Aspicularis tetraptera

    • affects rats, mice, hamsters, gerbils, rabbits, horses, NHP

    • probably # 1 contaminant in rat & mouse colonies in the US

    • no clinical signs (may cause rectal prolapse in young animals)

    • easily spread and survive in environment forever

    • fecal floatation, anal tape, or direct exam


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Rats and Mice

  • Ectoparasites:

    • Mites (Myobia sp.) and Lice (Polyplax sp.)

    • detection by examining pelt under microscope

    • pruritis, dermatitis, greasy coat, alopecia


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Guinea pigs

  • Bacterial pneumonia:

    • Bordetella bronchiseptica, Streptococcus pneumoniae

    • may cause anorexia, dyspnea, nasal discharge

    • Rabbits are carriers for B. bronchiseptica, therefore do not house G.P. and rabbits in the same area

  • Malocclusion: affects molars and premolars

    • weight loss, heavy salivation (slobbers)


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Who Wants to be a LATG!!

1. What is the most commonly encountered spontaneous neoplasm occurring in Oryctolagus cuniculus?

A. Lymphosarcoma

B. Uterine Adenocarcinoma

C. Embryonal Nephroma

D. Mammary Adenocarcinoma


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Rabbits

  • Pasteurellosis:

    • Pasteurella multocida: bacterial cause

    • very common in rabbits and difficult to treat

    • spread by aerosol or direct contact

    • diseases: snuffles (sneezing, nasal and ocular discharge), otitis media or interna, localized abscesses, genital infections, pneumonia


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Rabbits

  • Mucoid Enteropathy:

    • seen in 3-10 wk old rabbits that have been stressed

    • more common in rabbits following shipping

    • mucus in cage, anorexia, dehydration, distended abdomen, stained perianal fur

    • treatment: reduce food ration on arrival and increase dietary fiber (alfalfa cubes)


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Rabbits

  • Gastric Trichobezoar:

    • hairballs, very common in rabbits from pulling hair secondary to boredom

    • anorexia and no feces

    • treatment: mineral oil, laxative, or surgery

    • death secondary to hepatic lipidosis

    • prevention: high fiber diet


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Rabbits

  • Coccidiosis:

    • Intestinal (Eimeria sp.), Liver (Eimeria stiedae)

    • common in conventionally raised rabbits

    • diarrhea, poor weight gain, distended abdomen


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Dogs

  • Respiratory Infections:

    • very common in random source dogs

    • Parainfluenza, Adenovirus, etc

    • nasal discharge, cough, dyspnea, anorexia

  • Kennel Cough:

    • Bordetella bronchiseptica

    • mild and self-limiting, but highly contagious

    • harsh, dry cough


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Dogs

  • Parvovirus:

    • acute disease of young dogs

    • bloody diarrhea and severe panleukopenia

  • Otitis Externa:

    • bacteria, yeast, ear mites (Otodectes cynotis)

    • factors: dirt, trauma, hair, foreign bodies

    • excess head shaking and odor

  • Heartworms:

    • Dirofilaria immitis; spread by mosquitos

    • adults live in pulmonary artery, right artium, and right ventricle


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Cats

  • Urinary Disorders:

    • FUS (Feline Urologic Syndrome): cystitis, urethritis, urinary calculus

    • frequent painful urination, dysuria, hematuria

    • males cats more commonly affected

  • Otitis externa: Notoedres cati (ear mite)

  • Respiratory Diseases:

    • Feline Calcivirus and Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis


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Nonhuman Primates

  • Tuberculosis:

    • Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. avium-intracellulare

    • Old world monkeys are very suspectible

    • usually contracted from humans

    • transmission: respiratory, intestinal, or cutaneous

    • spread rapidly among NHP, but disease has long slow progression


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Nonhuman Primates

  • Tuberculosis (con’t);

    • devasting to primate colony; quarterly testing of colony to prevent spread

    • signs: weight loss, pneumonia, skin ulceration, lymphadenopathy

    • highly zoonotic: mask, gown, surgical gloves

    • positive reactors: quarantine, test, euthanasia


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Nonhuman Primates

  • Measles:

    • Paramyxovirus (Morbillivirus-Canine Distemper)

    • contracted only through infected humans

    • fatal disease in NHP

    • staff must not work with NHP if infected

    • skin rash (Koplick spots), nasal or ocular discharge, pneumonia, facial edema


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Nonhuman Primates

  • Diarrhea:

    • common problem among NHP (new arrivals)

    • causes: stress, salmonella, shigella, protozoa, campylobacteria (zoonotic agents)

  • Bite Wounds:

    • more common among gang-housed animals

    • self mutilation

    • escape animals or finger pokers


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Nonhuman Primates

  • Herpes B Virus (Cercopithecine Herpesvirus 1):

    • OWM of the genus Macaca are asymptomatic carriers

    • oral lesions or ulcers

    • Zoonotic and fatal to humans

    • Follow safety recommendations and bite kit instructions

    • DO NOT BECOME A RESEARCH PAPER!!


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Nonhuman Primates

  • Bloat (Gastric Dilatation)

    • common disease of NHP

    • found dead in cage in the morning with no previous clinical signs

    • signs: griting teeth, distended abdomen, hunched

    • postmortem signs: bloody oral discharge, stomach 2-5x normal size, frothy nasal discharge

    • factors: stress, anesthesia, new person, other conspecifics, gorging food


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Sheep and Goats

  • Q-Fever:

    • Coxiella burnetti: rickettsial disease

    • most common shed in milk or placental fluids of sheep

    • Zoonotic and causes bacterial endocarditis

  • Caseous Lymphadenitis:

    • enlargement of regional lymph nodes

  • Foot Rot:

    • affects skin and tissues around interdigital spaces


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Who Wants to be a LATG!!

1. Dasypus novemcinctus is used as an animal model for the overt form of leprosy. What nonhuman primate has also been used to study leprosy?

A. Saimiri sciureus

B. Cercopithecus aethiops

C. Cercocebus torquatus atys

D. Saguinus oedipus


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Swine

  • Atrophic Rhinitis:

    • inflammation of the upper respiratory tract caused by Bordetella bronchiseptica or Pasteurella multocida

    • nasal turbinate atrophy and septum deviation

  • Malignant Hyperthermia:

    • muscle rigidity, fever

    • caused by Halothane anesthesia


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Swine

  • Enzootic Pneumonia:

    • caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

    • chronic infectious respiratory disease

    • common in random source farm raised pigs

    • dry cough, respiratory distress and severe lung lesions


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Frogs

  • Redleg

    • caused by Aeromonas hydrophila

    • more common in leopard frogs (Rana pipiens)

    • factors: stress, population density, dietary change, injury to skin or slime coat

    • signs: cutaneous hemorrhages on legs, but can occur anywhere on the body.


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Mouse Serology Profiles

  • Sendai (SEN)

  • Pneumonia Virus of Mice (PVM)

  • Mouse Hepatitis Virus (MHV)

  • Minute Virus of Mice (MVM)

  • Mouse Poliovirus (GD-7): Theiler’s Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus

  • Type 3 Reovirus (REO-3)

  • Mycoplasma pulmonis (MPUL)

  • Mouse Parvovirus (MPV)


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Mouse Serology Profiles

  • Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis (LCMV)

  • Mouse Adenovirus (MAD)

  • Ectromelia (ECTRO)

  • Mouse Pneumonitis (K virus)

  • Polyomavirus (POLY)

  • Cilia Associated Respiratory Bacillus (CARB)

  • Hantaan Virus (HANT)

  • Mouse Cytomegalovirus (MCMV)

  • Epizootic Diarrhea of Infantile Mice (EDIM)


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Rat Serology Profiles

  • Sendai (SEN)

  • Pneumonia Virus of Mice (PVM)

  • Rat Coronavirus/Sialodacryoadenitis Virus (RCV/SDAV)

  • Kilham’s Rat Virus (KRV)

  • Toolan’s H-1 (H1)

  • Type 3 Reovirus (REO-3)

  • Mycoplasma pulmonis (MPUL)

  • Rat Parvovirus (RPV)


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Rat Serology Profiles

  • Mouse Poliovirus (GD-7)

  • Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV)

  • Mouse Adenovirus (MAD)

  • Hantaan Virus (HANT)

  • Cilia Associated Respiratory Bacillus (CARB)


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Guinea Pig & Hamster Serology Profile

  • Sendai (SEN)

  • Pneumonia Virus of Mice (PVM)

  • Simian Virus 5 (SV-5)

  • Type 3 Reovirus (REO-3)

  • Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV)

  • Encephalitozoon cuniculi (ECUN)


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Rabbit Serology Profile

  • Encephalitozoon cuniculi (ECUN)

  • Cilia associated respiratory (CARB)

  • Treponema cuniculi (TREP)

  • Type 3 Reovirus (REO-3)

  • Clostridium piliforme (CPIL)

  • Rotavirus (ROTA)


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Who Wants to be a LATG!!

1. What scientific term is used to describe decreased counts/values in all of the WBC’s?

A. Panleukopenia

B. Panleukocytosis

C. Pancytopenia

D. Pandemic