Generating Electricity More Efficiently from Waste Heat Multiphase Thermoelectric Converter Moacir L. Ferreira Jr. October 29, 2013 pat. pend.: PCT/IB2011/054511
Most of the energy produced worldwide (96.8%) are from thermal power sources (coal, oil, nuclear, solar tower, geothermal, natural gas, and biomass). source: iea.org source: bp.com
The energy efficiency of a conventional thermal power station is typically around 33%, which means that over half of the energy in gas and around two-thirds of the energy (66%) in nuclear and coal used to produce electricity is lost as waste heat (trillion dollars yearly) discharged into rivers, lakes, oceans and the atmosphere. photos source: wikipedia.org
In accordance to the laws of thermodynamics, any efficiency cannot exceed or even reach 100%, but do not prevent any efficiency from reaching or even exceeding 90%. • Higher pressures and temperatures (PV=nRT) can allow greater efficiencies η=1-(TC/TH), e.g. TC=300K, TH=3000K, η%=90%. • However, temperatures are limited by ability of materials to withstand high temperature, which is not the case for magnetic fields (r=mv/qB) that can withstand very high-temperature ion plasma.
Conceptually, the Multiphase Thermoelectric Converter works by ionizing hot coolant in order to force it F=q(v × B) to push its ions against moving magnetic fields doing useful work converting thermal energy directly into electric power at high efficiency with almost no moving parts. • Essentially, it can be comprised of two sets of concentric helix-coils (contra-aligned in Brayton cycle), feed by six phases [0° 60° 120° 180° 240° 300°], for producing opposing moving magnetic forces, for axially and radially compressing a hot ionized coolant F=q(v × B), forcing it to expand longitudinally which boosts the alternating magnetic fields F=i(L × B) ε=(Bℓv sinθ) electrodynamically converting thermal energy into electricity. • The phase rotation keeps the hot ionized coolant centered far from the inner walls, forcing ever higher pressures which induces increased temperatures (PV=nRT) for virtually getting closer to the maximum Carnot efficiency η=1-(TC/TH).
TWT • Comparatively, it works similarly to a conventional Traveling Wave Amplifier (TWT), where amplitude of alternating magnetic fields is boosted while charged particles pass through its interior, forcing the alternating fields outwardly thereby electromotively amplifying the amplitude of voltage and current (causing an opposing overflow of energy) on the coils while charged particles are losing kinetic energy; however, differently, it is multiphasic which allows opposing moving forces in ever higher compression (Brayton cycle instead of just Rankine cycle), and also it can use not only energy from electrons but also energy from electrically charged ions.
moving magnetic fields ion stream Hot coolant impels its ions against the moving magnetic fields of the multiphase coils doing useful work while converting thermal energy directly into electric power. Contra-aligned Multiphase Windings Alternative: inline conventional stators Radially it is to work like a polyphasic rotating motor, and axially like a linear AC motor; moving and rotating magnetic fields resulting in spiraling forces around and along its longitudinal axis. Internally, coated with thermal insulator(ceramic)
Also Multistage Ion Collectors is used for increasing even more the efficiency, by progressively forcing ions (F=qE) to exchange their kinetic energy into potential energy (W=qU) slowing/cooling down, and neutralizing them for collecting their residual energy, which causes an overvoltage on capacitor (E=½CV²) that is transferred via three-phase rectifier/inverter to a battery bank (multidirectional flow of energy).
The temperature of waste heat from conventional thermal power stations can range from 300°C to 600°C, although relatively energetic, it is so low-grade temperature heat for conventional steam turbines. However, it is possible to recover most of the waste heat into electric power by ionizing the exhausting gases in order to force them F=q(v × B) to push their ions against moving magnetic fields doing useful work while converting thermal energy directly into electric power at high efficiency with almost no moving parts.
The Multiphase Thermoelectric Converter can be mounted on cooling towers and/or chimneys to recover most of the waste heat into electric power directly by forcing the upstream exhausting gases to work against magnetic/electric fields. The exhausting gases can be pre-ionized by a nichrome filament, by triboelectric effect between the gases and a metallic grid, or also by a modified Kelvin electrostatic generator interconnecting two towers. Ions naturally are split apart by magnetic fields, seed for avalanche multiplication effect.
Most of the wasted heat energy from conventional thermal power stations can potentially be harvested in a commercially viable way (trillion dollars per year), still reducing the worldwide pollution. • Additionally, there is the Cross Fire Fusion Reactor that can replace more than 10 billion tons/year of carbon dioxide (CO₂) by only 10000 tons/year of non-radioactive, inert, and safe helium-4 gas. • Electric power can be used for electrolysis of water:H₂O + (286kJ/mole) → H₂ + ½O₂ Hydrogen can be combined with atmospheric CO₂ to produce methanol(CH₃OH):CO₂ + 3H₂ → CH₃OH + H₂ • This process can reduce CO₂ concentration and increase oxygen in the atmosphere, producing hydrogen for fuel cells and methanol for vehicles; methanol is relatively clean compared to gasoline or diesel which can substantially reduce the worldwide pollution.
Aneutronic Star Cross Fire Fusion Reactor
Aneutronic Star Cross Fire Fusion Reactor
Aneutronic Star pat. pend.: PCT/IB2013/050658 Cross Fire Fusion Reactor
Conclusion: • The Multiphase Thermoelectric Converter is to be potentially cheaper and more efficient than conventional thermoelectric systems. It can harvest most of the waste heat from thermal power stations in a commercially viable way. • By doubling (or even tripling) the overall efficiency of electric conversion from any thermal energy source, it can contribute largely for reducing the worldwide pollution.
Thank You www.crossfirefusion.com/thermoelectric