The Foundations of Medieval Christianity. Ecumenical Councils. Augustus of the East: Diocletian (285-305) Ceasar of the East: Galerius (293-311) Augustus of the West: Maximian (292-305) Ceasar of the West: Constantinus (293-306). Diocletian Galerius. Imperial Structure: Tetrarchy.
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Diocletian divided the empire into 4 prefectures and 17 dioceses.
Aided by capable Roman general Aetius
He won important victories over Visigoths
He and Theodoric of Constantinople turned back Attila the Hun at Chalons in 451
Attila the Hun
“The Scourge of Europe”
Coin of Aetius
Justinian restored the Empire to the practical dimensions of Theodosius I in 395 except for much of Spain and France. As such, he was the last “Roman Emperor” of the united Empire.
Taught that there was a time when the Son did not exist.
Sought to preserve the monarchy of the Father who alone is true God.
Holy Spirit is a power, energy rather than a person.
Taught that the Son was co-eternal with the Father.
Sought to preserve the confession that Jesus is God.
The Holy Spirit is co-eternal with the Father and Son as a person.Divided Christianity
We believe in one God, the Father Almighty, maker of all things visible and invisible; and in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only-begotten of his Father, of the substance of the Father, God of God, Light of Light, very God of very God, begotten , not made, being of one substance (homoousia) with the Father. By whom all things were made, both which be in heaven and in earth. Who for us men and for our salvation came down from heaven and was incarnate and was made man. He suffered and the third day he rose again, and ascended into heaven. And he shall come again to judge both the quick and the dead. And in the Holy Ghost. And whosoever shall say that there was a time when the Son of God was not, or that before he was begotten he was not, or that he was made of things that were not, or that he is of a different substance or essence from the Father or that he is a creature, or subject to change or conversion--all that so say, the Catholic and Apostolic Church anathematizes them.
And in the Holy Ghost, the Lord and Giver-of-Life, who proceeds from the Father, who with the Father and the Son together is worshipped and glorified, who spoke by the prophets. And in one, holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church. We acknowledge one Baptism for the remission of sins, and we look for the resurrection of the dead and the life of the world to come. Amen.
We confess, then, our lord Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son of God perfect God and perfect man of a rational soul and a body, begotten before all ages from the Father in his godhead, the same in the last days, for us and for our salvation, born of Mary the virgin, according to his humanity, one and the same consubstantial with the Father in godhead and consubstantial with us in humanity, for a union of two natures took place. Therefore we confess one Christ, one Son, one Lord. According to this understanding of the unconfused union, we confess the holy virgin to be themother of God because God the Word took flesh and became man and from his very conception united to himself the temple he took from her. As to the evangelical and apostolic expressions about the Lord, we know that theologians treat some in common as of one person and distinguish others as of two natures, and interpret the god-befitting ones in connection with the godhead of Christ and the lowly ones with his humanity.
Following the holy Fathers we teach with one voice that the Son and our Lord Jesus Christ is to be confessed as one and the same, that he is perfect in Godhead and perfect in manhood, very God and very man, of a reasonable soul and body consisting, consubstantial with the Father as touching his Godhead, and consubstantial with us as touching his manhood; made in all things like unto us, sin only excepted; begotten of his Father before the worlds according to his Godhead; but in these last days for us men and for our salvation born of the Virgin Mary, the Mother of God according to his manhood. This one and the same Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son must be confessed to be in two natures, unconfusedly, immutably, indivisibly, inseparably united, and that without the distinction of natures being taken away by such union, but rather the peculiar property of each nature being preserved and being united in one Person and subsistence, not separated or divided into two persons, but one and the same Son and only-begotten, God the Word, our Lord Jesus Christ, as the Prophets of old time have spoken concerning him, and as the Lord Jesus Christ hath taught us, and as the Creed of the Fathers hath delivered to us.
…one and the same Christ our Lord the only-begotten Son of two natures un-confusedly, unchangeably, inseparably indivisibly to be recognized, the peculiarities of neither nature being lost by the union but rather the proprieties of each nature being preserved, concurring in one Person and in one subsistence, not parted or divided into two persons but one and the same only-begotten Son of God, the Word, our Lord Jesus Christ, according as the Prophets of old have taught us and as our Lord Jesus Christ himself hath instructed us, and the Creed of the holy Fathers hath delivered to us; defining all this we likewise declare that in him are two natural wills and two natural operations indivisibly, inconvertibly, inseparably, inconfusedly, according to the teaching of the holy Fathers. And these two natural wills are not contrary the one to the other (God forbid!) as the impious heretics assert, but his human will follows and that not as resisting and reluctant, but rather as subject to his divine and omnipotent will…. For as his most holy and immaculate animated flesh was not destroyed because it was deified but continued in its own state and nature, so also his human will, although deified, was not suppressed, but was rather preserved according to the saying of Gregory Theologus: "His will [i.e., the Saviour's] is not contrary to God but altogether deified."
Basilicas took their form from a ship. The center portion was the nave (from Latin word for ship), flanked by side aisles, and a curved end known as an apse.
The largest and most impressive Roman basilica was built by Maxentius and finished by Constantine in the early 4th century. The apse contained a colossal statue of Constantine. It stood until largely destroyed by an earthquake in the 17th century.
Two views showing how the Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine would have appeared originally
Built originally as the Church of the Redeemer, it is the first of Constantine’s four basilica churches, and was the main church for Rome until the 16th century when replaced by the new St. Peter’s at the Vatican.
Great basilica church of the fifth century
Some of the original 5th century mosaics are visible above the arch behind the altar
“Shortly after the year 1000, all Christian peoples were seized with a great desire to outdo one another in magnificence. It was as if the very world had shaken itself, and, casting off her old garments, was clothing herself everywhere in a white robe of churches.”
The Pisa Cathedral (1063-1350) with Bell Tower (1174-1271) and Baptistry (1153-1265).