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Standard 1.1 Writing Conventions: Identify and correctly use clauses (main and subordinate), phrases (gerund, infinitive, and participial), and mechanics of punctuation (semicolons, colons, ellipses, hyphen). Identifying Correctly Punctuated Sentences. Number of Questions.

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Standard 1.1 Writing Conventions:Identify and correctly use clauses (main and subordinate), phrases (gerund, infinitive, and participial), and mechanics of punctuation (semicolons, colons, ellipses, hyphen).

Identifying Correctly Punctuated Sentences

number of questions
Number of Questions

The writing conventions section of the CAHSEE contains 15 multiple choice questions.There are five questions on the CAHSEE that test your understanding of Standard 1.1

purpose
Purpose

In this section, you will be

asked to recognize correctly

punctuated sentences.

clauses and phrases
Clauses and Phrases

To help correctly punctuate a sentence it is

important to identify these clauses and phrases:

  • Main Clause
  • Subordinate Clause
  • Gerund Phrase
  • Infinitive Phrase
  • Participial Phrase
main clause
Main Clause

A main clause is a simple sentence within a

complex sentence. It is connected to the rest of the

sentence by a comma and a conjunction or by a

semicolon.

Example:

I was going to go to school, but I became very ill.

Sergio wanted to ride bikes; Laura preferred to go skating.

;

and, or, but, yet,

for, nor, so

Main Clauses

subordinate clause
Subordinate Clause

A subordinate clause cannot stand on its own as a sentence and it

must be attached to a main clause to become a complete sentence.

When a subordinate clause comes at the beginning of the sentence,

it must be separated by a comma.

Example:

Before she came to school, she finished her Physics paper.

When the subordinate clause comes at the end of the sentence, don’t use a comma.

Example:

She finished her Physics paper before she came to school.

Subordinate clause

No comma

gerund phrase
Gerund Phrase

A gerund phrase is a word ending in –ing

that sounds like a verb, but acts like a noun.

Example:

Running track is my favorite sport.

Verb

Gerund

Phrase

infinitive phrase
Infinitive Phrase

Infinitive phrases include the to form of a verb.

The phrase is used as a noun, adjective, or adverb.

Example:

I always wanted to complete a marathon. (The object of the verb, in this case, is the phrase “to complete a marathon.”)

Justin runs to win. (adverb; modifies the verb run)

participial phrase
Participial Phrase

Participial phrases contain verbs that are present

participles (words ending in -ing) or past participles

(ending in -d, -ed, -n, -en, or -t).

A participial phrase acts like an adjective, is usually

next to the noun it modifies and is separated by

commas.

Example:

Relaxing in the park, Maria read and entire book.

example question 1
Example Question 1

Choose the answer that is the most effective substitution

for the underlined part of the sentence. If no substitution

Is required, choose “Leave as is.”

A dog bit Tom’s ankle while riding a bicycle.

  • Riding a bicycle, a dog bit Tom’s ankle.
  • While riding a bicycle, a dog bit Tom’s ankle.
  • While Tom was riding a bicycle, a dog bit his ankle.
  • Leave as is.
example question 1 answer
Example Question 1 Answer

Choose the answer that is the most effective substitution for

the underlined part of the sentence. If no substitution is

required, choose “Leave as is.”

A dog bit Tom’s ankle while riding a bicycle.

  • Riding a bicycle, a dog bit Tom’s ankle.
  • While riding a bicycle, a dog bit Tom’s ankle.
  • While Tom was riding a bicycle, a dog bit his ankle.
  • Leave as is.
example question 2
Example Question 2

The frightened pilot’s face was ashen as he gingerly

lowered the plane onto the Smith’s private ____ ____

that time was running out for his ailing friend.

  • runway: he knew
  • runway, he knew
  • runway. He knew
  • runway but he knew

Tip: read the sentences

out loud and insert the options.

answer
Answer

The frightened pilot’s face was ashen as he gingerly

lowered the plane onto the Smith’s private ____ ____

that time was running out for his ailing friend.

  • runway: he knew
  • runway, he knew
  • runway. He knew
  • runway but he knew

There are two separate ideas,

so there should be two sentences