Sexual Orientation. Kristin Happ May 2, 2005. Let’s cover the basics…. Sexual Orientation – feeling attracted toward a particular gender Basic groups: Heterosexuals Homosexuals Bisexuals Asexuals Sexual Identity – being physically or genetically masculine or feminine
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May 2, 2005
Many studies have been done on the effects of possible early androgen exposure for both males and females.
Exposure during the 2nd trimester increases cerebral asymmetry via accelerated growth of the right hemisphere
There is a higher frequency of non-right-handedness in both homosexual men and women. Greene, 2002
Androgen and estrogen exposure control sexual dimorphism in skeletal size by stimulating GH secretion and acting directly through receptors on the bone.
Long bones are the arm and leg bones, where there is typically a sexual dimorphism with males having longer arms and legs than females.
Martin, et al. hypothesized that homosexual men with reduced androgen exposure would have shorter long bones than male heterosexuals and also that homosexual women with increased androgen exposure would have longer long bones than heterosexual women.
Martin, et al., 2004
Van Anders, et all, 2005
Adkins-Regan, et al.,2001
Roselli et al. found that male oriented rams receive lower than normal androgen stimulation of the brain
mRNA levels for aromatase in the oSDN were higher in males than females, and were higher in female-oriented males than male-oriented rams
Perkins, et al., 1995
Thompson et al., 2004
Amateau & McCarthy, 2004
Zucker, et al., 1996
Gorski et al., 1982
Allan & Gorski, 1992
Correlation between birth order and homosexuality
Also a correlation between birth order and birth weight
Feminine boys with 2 or more older brothers weighed 385 g less than control boys
May be due to an immune response by the mother with an anti-male antibody
Blanchard, et al., 2002
Swaab, 2004, Greene, 2003
Kaiser et all., 2003