S1 L1 Introduction to Pharmacognosy. Anna Drew with slide contribution from Bob Hoffman & grateful acknowledgement for inspirational teaching received at the School of Pharmacy, University of London. ‘Pharmacognosy’ pharmakon ‘a drug’ (Greek) gignosco ‘ to acquire knowledge of’ (Greek)
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with slide contribution from Bob Hoffman
& grateful acknowledgement for inspirational teaching received at the School of Pharmacy, University of London
Analysis of other commodoties
Role in pure sciences
Botanists and chemists looking at:
“A suspected person is given 8 beans ground and added to water as a drink. If he is guilty, his mouth shakes and mucus comes from his nose. His innocence is proved if he lifts his right hand and then regurgitates” (Simmons 1952)
Papaver opium -> morphine, codeine (strong medicinal pain)
Ergot fungus –> ergotamine (headache), ergometrine (direct action on uterine muscle)
Droscera yam: molecule -> steroids
Soya: saponins -> steroids
picrotoxin – nerve conduction
No better painkiller. Once structure worked out wanted to improve it. What is required?
OH group -> O-O-diacetyl. Still addictive?
Methylate hydroxyl phenolic; O-Me. 1/5 analgesic capacity of morphine, useful to suppress cough reflex
Reduced =, oxidised 2y alc. Potential analgesic.
Me-ether of previous. More powerful than codeine, less than morphine.
Good against cough reflex
Is lower ring necessary?
Is middle ring needed?
Catharanthus periwinkle -> vincristine (alkaloid dimer)
Future: intense screening
80% world population rely on natural remedies