Phonation and Laryngeal Anatomy and Physiology. Nothing is ever said on the stage without a reason. There are no exceptions. Charles Waxberg.
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Nothing is ever said on the stage without a reason. There are no exceptions. Charles Waxberg
The original use of the larynx was to keep us alive through breakfast. Its main function is stop solids and liquids from entering the trachea and choking us to death. Its secondary functions are to bear down, phonation and speech. The larynx of humans and great apes in infancy is higher in the neck so that they can breathe and suckle at the same time. In humans it descends before the age of two.
1. Hyoid bone
2. Thyroid cartilage
3. Cricoid cartilage
4. Tracheal cartilages
2. Cricothyroid ligament
3. Arytenoid cartilage
4. Corniculate cartilage
5. Vocal ligament
6. Vestibular fold
7. Cricoid cartilage
8. Articular facet for inferior
cornu of thyroid cartilage
The thyroid rests superiorly on the cricoid and attaches posterior-laterally at the cricoid’s inferior articulator facets. This attachment (the cricothyroid joint) hinges the cricoid and thyroid allowing their anterior sides to adduct, changing vocal fold length.
The arytenoid cartilages, two pyramid shaped cartilages rest on the cricoid at the cricoarytenoid joints and move in two distinct ways:
1.)To pivot (rocking) the posterior ends of the arytenoids away from each other, adducting the anterior ends or the reverse so the anterior ends abduct, and…
2.)Sliding the arytenoids on an anterior-posterior path.
Since the vocal folds are attached to the anterior ends of these cartilages (at the vocal process) any movement in them will change the folds’ shape, tension and relationship to each other thereby affecting phonation.
TWO Groups of Extrinsic Muscles:
Pitch is determined by Relaxors and Tensors
Phonation is made up of a fundamental frequency or Fo (the number of times the folds open and close per second-CPS) and harmonic multiples of the Fo (two times the Fo, three times, four times etc.) that fall in intensity (volume) in an inverse relationship as the harmonics rise in frequency or as the pitch rises the volume falls.
Bronx Cheer or Raspberry– “the sound is that or air escaping in rapid bursts, not the sound of the lips moving” – Borden and Harris. Aerodynamic forces acting on the elastic body of the lips
Glottal vibration is the result or refers to interaction between aero-dynamic forces and vocal fold muscular action.
Schematic showing the Bernoulli Effect. The arrows indicate movement of pressure. As the air moves through a narrowing, inside pressure drops and outside pressure increases pulling the sides inward.
(Note: Folds come together FULLY but without force for Modal register)