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Natural Sciences 360 Legacy of Life Lecture 13 Dr. Stuart S. Sumida. Living Amphibians – the Environmental Monitors REPTILES AND THEIR RELATIVES. Living Frogs and Salamanders (Batrachia) – the environmental monitors. Possible causes of amphibian declines include:

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Natural Sciences 360

Legacy of Life

Lecture 13

Dr. Stuart S. Sumida

Living Amphibians – the Environmental Monitors

REPTILES AND THEIR RELATIVES



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  • Possible causes of amphibian declines include: environmental monitors.

  • Changes in climate - acid rain, ultraviolet radiation, drought, ozone layer depletion, etc.

  • Loss of wetlands

  • Invasive predators (such as trout and bullfrogs)

  • Disease (bacteria, viruses, fungus) or parasites

  • Pollution - pesticides, fertilizers, heavy metals, etc.


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New Discovery! A LUNGLESS FROG! environmental monitors.


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What we used to think... environmental monitors.

Mammals Birds

“Mammal-like Reptiles”

PRIMITIVE

REPTILES

Amphibians


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Um.........NO. environmental monitors.

Mammals Birds

“Mammal-like Reptiles”

PRIMITIVE

REPTILES

Amphibians


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Panderichthyid Most Reptilia

Sarcoptrygians Amphibians Diadectomorpha Synapsida (including Aves)


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Panderichthyid Most Synapsida Reptilia

Sarcoptrygians Amphibians Diadectomorpha (Mammals) (including Aves)

AMNIOTA (FOR SURE)


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Panderichthyid Most Synapsida Reptilia

Sarcoptrygians Amphibians Diadectomorpha (Mammals) (including Aves)

AMNIOTA (FOR SURE)

Amniota?


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Panderichthyid Most Synapsida Reptilia

Sarcoptrygians Amphibians Diadectomorpha (Mammals) (including Aves)

AMNIOTA (FOR SURE)

Amniota?

TETRAPODA


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Panderichthyid Most Synapsida Reptilia

Sarcoptrygians Amphibians Diadectomorpha (Mammals) (including Aves)

AMNIOTA (FOR SURE)

Amniota?


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Other Sarcopterygians outside the embryo to help it survive:

Panderichthyids

Ichthyostegalia

Dissorophoids

Lissamphibia

Anthracosauria

Seymouriamorpha

Diadectomorpha

Amniota

Sarcopterygii

Tetrapoda

The road to reptiles


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  • Diadectomorpha: outside the embryo to help it survive:

  • No intertemporal bone like other amniotes

  • Very terrestrially adapted


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outside the embryo to help it survive:Amphibia” Amniota

Seymouriamorpha Diadectomorpha Synapsida Parareptilia Captorhinidae Diapsida Archosauromorpha

Reptilia

Amniota


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outside the embryo to help it survive:Amphibia” Amniota

Seymouriamorpha Diadectomorpha Synapsida Parareptilia Captorhinidae Diapsida Archosauromorpha

Reptilia

Amniota



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side of skullAmphibia” Amniota

Seymouriamorpha Diadectomorpha Synapsida Parareptilia Captorhinidae Diapsida Archosauromorpha

Reptilia

Amniota


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Mesosaurus side of skull: A member of Mesosauria


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Eudibamis side of skull: a member of Bolosauridae


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Eudibamus side of skullcursoris

The earliest known bipedal vertebrate

From the Early Permian (~280 million years old) of central Germany.


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Bradysaurus side of skull: A member of the Parieasauria


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Parieasaurs have lumpy, bumpy skulls side of skull

Scutosaurus



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side of skullAmphibia” Amniota

Seymouriamorpha Diadectomorpha Synapsida Parareptilia Captorhinidae Diapsida Archosauromorpha

Reptilia

Amniota


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Basal Captorhinid: side of skullEocaptorhinus


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side of skullAmphibia” Amniota

Seymouriamorpha Diadectomorpha Synapsida Parareptilia Captorhinidae Diapsida Archosauromorpha

Reptilia

Amniota


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Basal Diapsid: side of skullPetrolacosaurus

Note: TWO holes (fenestrae) on side of skull

Known back to Late Pennsylvanian


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  • Diapsida side of skull includes:

    • Many extinct forms

    • Squamata

    • Archosauromorpha

  • Squamata includes living lizards and snakes.


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  • Squamata side of skull:

    • Lizards (including limbless lizards)

    • Snakes


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Crotaphytus side of skull (local, “collared lizard”)





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Monitor lizard side of skull




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Cobra side of skull


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Hog-nosed pit viper side of skull


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Long-nosed vine snake side of skull


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side of skullAmphibia” Amniota

Seymouriamorpha Diadectomorpha Synapsida Parareptilia Captorhinidae Diapsida Archosauromorpha

Reptilia

Amniota


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Archosauria includes Crocodilians, Pterosaurs, Dinosaurs (including Birds), and a variety of other extinct groups.


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  • Crocodylomorpha: (including Birds), and a variety of other extinct groups. Still extant - known from the Middle Triassic to present day.

  • In brief:

  • Low, flat skull.

  • All but a few marine forms have 24 vertebrae cranial to the hip and 2 sacral vertebrae for attaching to the hip.


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Alligator mississippiensis (including Birds), and a variety of other extinct groups.

Note presence of bony “scutes” or osteoderms in skin.


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Crocodilians are capable of a variety of types of locomotion: swimming; slow-sprawling walk; a moderate speed “high walk;” and even galloping in some young or smaller ones.


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Nile crocodile locomotion: swimming; slow-sprawling walk; a moderate speed “high walk;” and even galloping in some young or smaller ones.

Some crocodilians have extremely complex social behavior and communication.


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Reconstruction of locomotion: swimming; slow-sprawling walk; a moderate speed “high walk;” and even galloping in some young or smaller ones. Sarcosuchus imperator (“Supercroc”)

Over 40 feet long.


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The Diversity of Extinct Marine Reptiles locomotion: swimming; slow-sprawling walk; a moderate speed “high walk;” and even galloping in some young or smaller ones.

Examples of Convergent Evolution


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“Duria antiquior” locomotion: swimming; slow-sprawling walk; a moderate speed “high walk;” and even galloping in some young or smaller ones.


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  • Mesozoic marine reptiles are not dinosaurs. locomotion: swimming; slow-sprawling walk; a moderate speed “high walk;” and even galloping in some young or smaller ones.

  • All are a variety of diapsid reptilies.

  • We will survey them from approximately more primitive diapsid derivatives to somewhat more derived diapsid derivatives.


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locomotion: swimming; slow-sprawling walk; a moderate speed “high walk;” and even galloping in some young or smaller ones.Amphibia” Amniota

Seymouriamorpha Diadectomorpha Synapsida Parareptilia Captorhinidae Diapsida Archosauromorpha

Reptilia

Amniota


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Reall the Basal Diapsid: locomotion: swimming; slow-sprawling walk; a moderate speed “high walk;” and even galloping in some young or smaller ones.Petrolacosaurus

Note: TWO holes (fenestrae) on side of skull


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Petrolacosaurus locomotion: swimming; slow-sprawling walk; a moderate speed “high walk;” and even galloping in some young or smaller ones.

A primitive diapsid reptile

Fenestrae color-coded green here


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Mesozoic Marine Reptiles: locomotion: swimming; slow-sprawling walk; a moderate speed “high walk;” and even galloping in some young or smaller ones.

Diapsida

Sauropterygia

Placodontia

Nothosauria

Pleisosauria

Ichthyosauria

Squamata

Mosasauria


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Diapsida locomotion: swimming; slow-sprawling walk; a moderate speed “high walk;” and even galloping in some young or smaller ones.

Sauropterygia

Placodontia

Nothosauria

Pleisosauria

Ichthyosauria

Squamata

Mosasauria


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Diapsida locomotion: swimming; slow-sprawling walk; a moderate speed “high walk;” and even galloping in some young or smaller ones.

Sauropterygia

Placodontia

Nothosauria

Pleisosauria

Ichthyosauria

Squamata

Mosasauria


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Placodonts were fusiform but large animals that lived in the Middle to Upper Triassic.

Similar to manatees in the niche they filled.


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Placodus gigas Middle to Upper Triassic.

(type)

Large teeth and palatal teeth indicate that it probably ate molluscs.


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Placodus gigas Middle to Upper Triassic.


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Paraplacodus Middle to Upper Triassic.


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Diapsida Middle to Upper Triassic.

Sauropterygia

Placodontia

Nothosauria

Pleisosauria

Ichthyosauria

Squamata

Mosasauria


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  • Nothosauria: Middle to Upper Triassic.

  • Middle to Upper Triassic

  • Very short snout end of skull, relatively longer caudal (postorbital) region of skull.

  • Large, procumbent rostral (frontmost) teeth, often developed as fangs.


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Often have elongate necks. Middle to Upper Triassic.

Humerus and femur longer than more distal elements.


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Nothosaurus mirabilus Middle to Upper Triassic.

Reconstruction of skull and jaw musculature


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Nothosaurus Middle to Upper Triassic. : reconstruction


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Diapsida Middle to Upper Triassic.

Sauropterygia

Placodontia

Nothosauria

Pleisosauria

Ichthyosauria

Squamata

Mosasauria


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  • Plesiosauria: Middle to Upper Triassic.

  • Much larger than nothosaurs.

  • Forelimbs and hindlimbs look much more similar.

  • EXTREMELY elongate necks, even more so than nothosaurs.

  • Note that despite paddle-like nature of hand (manus) and foot (pes), each still retains only five digits.


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Plesiosaurs have Middle to Upper Triassic.

HYPERPHALANGY: additional segments to the digits of the fingers and toes.


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Cryptoclidus Middle to Upper Triassic. (plesiosaurid)

Plesiosaurs have HYPERPHALANGY: additional segments to the digits of the fingers and toes.

Hydrothecrosaurus

(elasmosaurid)


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Cryptoclidus Middle to Upper Triassic. (plesiosaurid)

Hydrothecrosaurus

(elasmosaurid)


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Cryptocleidus Middle to Upper Triassic.

(about 30 meters long)


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Liopleurodon Middle to Upper Triassic.

(about 80 feet long)


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Diapsida Middle to Upper Triassic.

Sauropterygia

Placodontia

Nothosauria

Pleisosauria

Ichthyosauria

Squamata

Mosasauria


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  • Ichthyosauria Middle to Upper Triassic.

  • Triassic to Cretaceous – However, more extreme members of group lived in Jurassic and Cretaceous.

  • Most highly specialized of marine reptiles. They converged on fish and cetacean forms.

  • Highly modified skull: large orbit, reduced cheek region, elongate snout.

  • Limbs modified into flippers; hyperdactyly.

  • Viviperous: gave birth to live young.


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Mixosaurus Middle to Upper Triassic. reconstruction

  • Most highly specialized of marine reptiles. They converged on fish and cetacean forms.


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Highly modified skull: large orbit, reduced cheek region, elongate snout.

Most highly specialized of marine reptiles. They converged on fish and cetacean forms.

Ichthyosaurus




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Juvenile hyperphalyngy.Ophthalmosaurus


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Diapsida hyperphalyngy.

Sauropterygia

Placodontia

Nothosauria

Pleisosauria

Ichthyosauria

Squamata

Mosasauria


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  • Mosasaurs: hyperphalyngy.

  • Not closely related to Sauropterygians or Ichthyosaurs.

  • Actually highly derived members of the lizard family Varanidae.

  • Late Cretaceous ecological replacements for Ichthyosauria.


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  • Mosasaur Anatomy: hyperphalyngy.

  • Extremely elongate tail, body narrower and slimmer than other groups surveyed. (Probably swam in a more eel-like fashion.)

  • However, neck, remains relatively short.

  • Limbs modified for steering as opposed to propulsion.

  • Have HYPER PHALANGY, but not hyerdactyly.


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Plotosaurus hyperphalyngy., a mosasaur over 10 meters in length.