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Language Development & Communication Basic Components of Language: 1. Phonology – 2. Semantics – 3. Syntax – PowerPoint Presentation
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Language Development & Communication Basic Components of Language: 1. Phonology – 2. Semantics – 3. Syntax – 4. Pragmatics – . Language Development & Communication Basic Components of Language:. Language Development & Communication Theories of Language Development

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slide1

Language Development & Communication

Basic Components of Language:

1. Phonology –

2. Semantics –

3. Syntax –

4. Pragmatics –

slide2

Language Development & Communication

Basic Components of Language:

slide3

Language Development & Communication

  • Theories of Language Development
  • 1. Learning Perspective
        • Imitation and reinforcement
        • Evaluation of perspective
slide4

Language Development & Communication

  • Theories of Language Development
  • 2. Nativist Perspective
        • Noam Chomsky
        • Language Acquisition Device (LAD)
        • Language-Making Capacity (LMC)
slide5

Language Development & Communication

Theories of Language Development

  • Support for Nativist perspective
  • a. Broca’s & Wernicke’s areas
slide6

Language Development & Communication

Theories of Language Development

  • Support for Nativist perspective
  • a. Broca’s & Wernicke’s areas
  • b. Infant phonetic discrimination
  • c. Sensitive period
  • d. Invention of language
slide7

Language Development & Communication

Theories of Language Development

  • Problems with Nativist perspective
  • a. Plasticity retained
  • b. Rhesus monkeys can discriminate sounds much like human infants
  • c. Do invented languages occur without adult intervention?
  • d. LAD not very helpful concept
slide8

Language Development & Communication

  • Theories of Language Development
  • 3. Interactionist Perspective
        • Biology + Environment

Environmental Support for Language Development

a. Joint activities (zone of proximal development)

slide9

Language Development & Communication

  • Theories of Language Development
  • 3. Interactionist Perspective
        • Biology + Environment

Environmental Support for Language Development

a. Joint activities (zone of proximal development)

b. Motherese / Child Directed Speech

c. Expansions/recasts

d. Conversation is critical

slide10

Language Development & Communication

SEQUENCE OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

Prelinguistic Period (until 10 to 13 mos)

A. Making sounds

1. Cooing

2. Babbling

3. Vocables

slide11

SEQUENCE OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

Prelinguistic Period (until 10 to 13 mos)

A. Making sounds

B. Learning the rules

1. Taking turns

2. Gestures & non-verbal communication

3. Receptive vs. productive language

slide12

SEQUENCE OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

Holophrastic Period (from 10-13 mos to 18-24 mos)

Holophrastic period –

Holophrase –

Naming explosion -

slide13

SEQUENCE OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

Holophrastic Period (from 10-13 mos to 18-24 mos)

Referential style –

Expressive style –

Cultural and birth order effects….

slide14

SEQUENCE OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

Holophrastic Period (from 10-13 mos to 18-24 mos)

Overextension – use relatively specific words to refer to a broader set of objects, actions, or events than adults do.

Underextension – use general words to refer to a smaller set of objects, actions or events than adults do.

slide15

SEQUENCE OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

Telegraphic Period (from 18-24 mos to about 30 mos)

Early sentences (two words or more) consist solely of content words and omit the less meaningful parts of speech.

For example: More candy See kitty We go

slide16

SEQUENCE OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

Universal Milestones in Language Devel.

MilestoneApprox. Age

Cooing 2-3 mos.

Babbling 5 mos.

First Words 10-14 mos.

Ten Words 12 mos.

Two-word 21-24 mos. sentence

Two-hundred 24 mos. words

slide17

SEQUENCE OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

Preschool Period (from 2 ½ to 5 years)

  • Grammatical development
    • Overregularization – overgeneralize grammatical rules to irregular cases (see cartoon).
  • Semantics
  • Pragmatics & Communication Skills
slide18

SEQUENCE OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

Middle Childhood & Adolescent Period (6-14 years)

  • Use larger words
  • Produce longer & more complex sentences
  • Think about language and manipulate it in new ways
slide19

LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

The Importance of Reading to Children

(Whitehurst et al. 1988)

  • Toddlers
  • Control group –
  • Experimental group –
  • After one month, the children in the experimental group had a larger gain in vocabulary
  • Replicated in Mexico (Valdez-Menchaca & Whitehurst, 1992)
slide20

LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT American Sign Language

Sign constructed from a limited set of gestural components (same way that the spoken word is constructed from a finite number of distinctive sounds or phonemes).

slide21

LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT American Sign Language

Sign constructed from a limited set of gestural components (same way that the spoken word is constructed from a finite number of distinctive sounds or phonemes).

Components of ASL:

1. Position of hands

2. Configuration of hands/fingers

3. Motions of hands/fingers

slide22

LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT American Sign Language

  • Deaf children acquire ASL much like hearing children acquire their oral language.
  • Babbling –
  • Holophrastic phrases (action words, naming objects, modifiers).
  • Telegraphic statements
  • Same stages
slide23

LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT American Sign Language

Deaf children acquire ASL much like hearing children acquire their oral language.

When deaf children are raised with deaf parents:

Babbling – 7-11 mos.

Pointing – 8-9 mos.

Word/Sign – 12 mos.

slide24

LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

Bilingualism

  • Two Critical Issues:
  • Expose to both? Best way to do this?
  • What is the best way to acquire a second language for school?
slide25

LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

Bilingualism

  • Exposing child to two languages at the same time:
  • Slower at first, catch up
  • Don’t mix up
slide26

LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

Bilingualism

  • Bilingual Education:
  • What’s most effective when child does not speak language of school?
  • Not Immersion
  • Not ESL Programs
  • Some basic instruction in native language in first year or two
slide27

LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

Bilingualism

  • Advantages:
  • Increased language proficiency
  • Increased concept formation
  • Increased nonverbal intelligence
  • Increased metalinguistic awareness
  • Note: These positive effects result from bilingual immersion and also foster an appreciation for diversity!
  • Two-way bilingual education?
slide28

LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

Critical Period for Language Acquisition?

  • Critical Period Hypothesis: Notion that human beings are most proficient at learning language before puberty.
  • Prepubescent children
  • Brain damage
  • Summary
slide29

LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

Critical Period for Language Acquisition?

  • Wild Children
  • Number of cases recorded
  • Number of cases that acquired language
  • Number that did not learn any language (Reich, 1986)
  • Most famous case