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Italian Renaissance. 1300-1600. Italian States. The civilization of the Italian Renaissance was urban, centered on towns that had become prosperous from manufacturing, trade, and banking.

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italian states
Italian States
  • The civilization of the Italian Renaissance was urban, centered on towns that had become prosperous from manufacturing, trade, and banking.
  • Italians had acquired considerable wealth, and some of this wealth was used to support writers, scholars, and artists.
slide3
During the Renaissance, Italy remained divided politically. In northern Italy, the city-states of Florence, Milan, and Venice became major centers of the Renaissance civilization.
  • Rome dominated the Papal States of central Italy, while the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies embraced most of southern Italy.
italian states4
Florence

Oligarchy

Medici family

Savonarola

Milan

Condottiere

Spanish empire

Venice

Great Council

Doge

Monopoly on spice and luxury trade

Papal States

Renaissance Popes

Julius II

Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

Poor land

Spanish empire

Italian States
renaissance literature
Tuscan Triumvirate ---> vernacular

Dante Alighieri

Divine Comedy

Francesco Petrarca (Petrarch)

Italian sonnet - poem of 14 lines (8 and 6)

Literary humanism

Giovanni Boccaccio

Decameron

Niccolo Machiavelli

The Prince

Bladassare Castiglione

The Book of the Courtier

Benvenuto Cellini

Autobiography

Lorenzo Valla

Linguistic/historical analysis

Renaissance Literature
italian renaissance art
Italian Renaissance Art
  • Religious scenes focused on expressions
  • Holy as human
  • God’s beauty in world
  • Neo-Platonism
  • Nude body
  • Uniqueness - self-portraits
  • Pagan myths as Christian icons
  • Individual-secular-profane
giotto
Giotto
  • Religious subjects in more human fashion and realistic setting
  • Illusion of depth
masaccio
Masaccio
  • Used light and shade to perspective
  • The Holy Trinity
sandro botticelli
Sandro Botticelli
  • Vivid colors
  • Classical mythology
  • The Adoration of the Magi
  • The Birth of Venus
  • Primavera
leonardo da vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
  • First Italian artist to use oil paints
  • Mona Lisa
  • The Last Supper
  • The Virgin of the Rocks
  • Religious matter in secular and humanized fashion
leonardo da vinci11
Leonardo da Vinci
  • Studying fossils
  • Anatomy from dissections
  • First accurate description of human skeleton
  • Remained on paper
raphael santi
Raphael Santi
  • Humanized Madonna paintings
  • Sistine Madonna
  • School of Athens
michelangelo buonarotti
Michelangelo Buonarotti
  • Sistine Chapel
    • Nine scenes of OT from Creation to Flood
  • The Last Judgment
  • David
  • Moses
  • Pieta
  • Dying Slave
  • Night
titian
Titian
  • Tiziano Vecellio
  • Most famous Venetian painter
  • One painting a month
  • “Titian” red
  • The Assumption of the Virgin
the northern renaissance
The Northern Renaissance
  • The influence of the Italian Renaissance gradually spread northward.
  • The Northern Renaissance was infused with a more Christian spirit than in Italy, where there had been often an almost open revolt against Christian ideals.
renaissance in germany and low countries
Renaissance in Germany and Low Countries
  • Printing press w/ moveable type
    • Johannes Gutenberg
    • 1456 - the Bible
    • Rapid spread of knowledge
slide18
Christian Humanism
    • Unite classical learning w/ Christian faith
    • Erasmus
      • ‘Prince of the Humanists’
      • Praise of Folly
      • Rejected Luther
flemish painting
Flemish Painting
  • Jan and Hubert van Eyck
    • First to use oil paints
    • The Adoration of the Lamb
    • Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride
slide20
Hieronymus Bosch
    • Nightmarish fantasy worlds
    • Garden of Earthly Delight
slide21
Peter Brueghel
    • Earthly and lively activities of peasants
    • Peasant Wedding
    • Children’s Games
german painting
German Painting
  • Albrecht Durer
    • Mastery of expression
    • Woodcuts
    • Self-Portrait
slide23
Hans Holbein the Younger
    • Portraits
      • Henry VIII
      • Erasmus
      • Thomas More
      • The Ambassadors
elizabethan literature
Elizabethan Literature
  • Edmund Spenser
    • Leading poet
  • Christopher Marlowe
    • playwright
    • Brief career
    • Doctor Faustus
  • William Shakespeare
    • Most famous playwright
  • Ben Jonson
    • Last major literary figure
spanish renaissance
Spanish Renaissance
  • Cardinal Fransciso Jumenez de Cisneros
  • Miguel de Cervantes
    • Don Quixote
  • Felix Lope de Vega
    • Most prolific playwright
  • El Greco
    • Greatest painter of SR
    • Studied with Titian
    • Intense religious mysticism
    • Mannerism
  • El Escorial
the protestant reformation
The Protestant Reformation
  • 1517 - Luther posts 95 Theses
  • 1534 - Act of Supremacy
  • 1555 - Peace of Augsburg
martin luther
Martin Luther
  • Planned to be a lawyer
  • Religious conversion to Augustinian monk
  • Theology teacher at university of Wittenberg
  • “The just shall live by faith.” Romans (1:17)
    • Justification by faith
  • Johann Tetzel
    • Indulgence controversy
  • 95 Theses
  • Diet of Worms
lutheranism
Lutheranism
  • “Justification by faith”
  • “Sola scriptura”
  • Baptism and holy communion
  • Priesthood of believers
  • German translation of Bible
  • Abolished monasteries and celibacy of clergy
lutheranism30
Peasants’ Revolt

Holy Roman Emperor Charles V

Diet of Augsburg

Peace of Augsburg

German prince right to determine religion of his state

Lutheran or Roman Catholic

No recognition of Calvinists or Anabaptists

Lutheranism dominant in northern Germany and Scandinavia

Lutheranism
calvinism
Ulrich Zwingli

Humanist and Catholic priest

Sacraments only symbolic ceremonies

Rejected celibacy of clergy

Emphasized simplicity in worship

Killed by Catholic forces

John Calvin

Protestant

Exile in Geneva

Institutes of the Christian Religion

Predestination

Salvation by election

Puritanism

Theocracy

Calvinism
spread of calvinism
Switzerland

France

Huguenots

John Knox

Presbyterians

England

Puritans

Netherlands

Max Weber’s theory of the “Protestant work ethic”

Spread of Calvinism
anglicanism
King Henry VIII

Divorce of Catherine of Aragon

Thomas Cramner

Act of Supremacy

King head of Church of England

Six Articles

No papal supremacy

Sold monasteries

Supported by English people

Papal taxes

“Babylonian Captivity”

Monastic land

Execution of Thomas More

Edward VI

42 Articles

More Protestant

Cramner’s Book of Common Prayer

Bloody Mary

Executed Cramner

Married Philip II

Elizabeth I

Last Tudor

39 Articles

Opposition

Pilgrims - Separatists

Mary Queen of Scots

Philip II

Anglicanism
anabaptism
Radicals of the PR

Rejection of infant baptism

Active in Peasants’ Revolt

Thomas Munzer

John of Leyden

Menno Simons

Mennonites

Anabaptism