Human Resource Management International HR. Stages of International Involvement. Stage 1 Markets are exclusively domestic Stage 2 Markets expanded to foreign countries, but production remains domestic Stage 3 Some operations moved out of home country
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Values orientation Variations
Relation to nature Subjugation Harmony Mastery
Time orientation Past Present Future
Basic human nature Evil Neutral/Mixed Good
Activity orientation Being Containing/ Doing
Relationships among Individualistic Group Hierarchical
Space orientation Private Mixed Public
Pleasantness Good Citizen Competent Good Thinker
(Cheerful,loving, (Responsible, (Capable, (Imaginative,
helpful) polite, obedient) courageous) intellectual)
Australia (n=36) 12.7 10.9 5.6 8.3
Brazil (n=30) 11.7 10.1* 4.7* 6.8*
Denmark (n=37) 11.9 11.5 5.2 8.6
France (n=32) 13.1* 11.3 5.6 7.8
(n=89) 12.5 11.7 6.2 7.7
Germany (n=106) 13.0* 10.8 5.5 8.0
Italy (n=31) 12.2 11.7 5.2 6.7*
Japan (n=20) 10.0* 9.8* 6.2 7.5
Holland (n=31) 12.2 11.8 5.4 7.5
Norway (n=46) 11.5 11.4 5.2 8.0
Sweden (n=69) 12.8 12.0 4.5* 8.1
USA (n=42) 12.1 11.5 6.7* 7.7
Overall 12.3 11.3 5.6 7.9
PD IC MF UA LT
USA 40L 91H 62H 46L 29L
Germany 35L 67H 66H 65M 31M
Japan 54M 46M 95H 92H 80H
France 68H 71H 43M 86H 30L
Netherlands 38L 80H 14L 53M 44M
Hong Kong 68H 25L 57H 29L 96H
Indonesia 78H 14L 46M 48L 25L
West Africa 77H 20L 46M 54M 16L
Russia 95H 50M 40L 90H 10L
China 80H 20L 50M 60M 118H
PD – H = accepts unequal power
IC – H = individualistic
MF – H = masculine
UA – H = avoid uncertainty
LT – H = long-term orientation
From Hostede, 1993
Academy of Management Executive
JapanFormal,consensus seekersCulturally Based Differences in Management Style: Stereotypes
DO say please and thank you often.
DO arrive promptly.
DON’T ask personal questions because the British protect their privacy.
DON’T gossip about British royalty
DO shake hands when greeting. Only close friends give light, brushing kisses on cheeks.
DO dress more formally than in the United States. Elegant dress is highly valued.
DON’T expect to complete any work during the French two hour lunch
DON’T chew gum in a work setting.
DO write business correspondence in Italian for priority attention.
DO make appointments between 10:00 and 11:00 or after 3:00.
DON’T eat too much pasta, as it is not the main course.
out business cards too freely. Italians use them infrequently.
DO distribute business cards freely so people will know how to spell your name.
DO be prompt even if your hosts are not.
DON’T expect to meet deadlines. A project takes as long as the
Greeks think is
DON’T address people by formal or professional titles. The Greeks want more informality.
DO present your business cards with both hands and a slight bow as a gesture of
DO present gifts, American
made and wrapped
DON’T knock competitors.
DON’T present the same gift to everyone, unless all members are the same organizational
1 Tokyo Japan 152
2 Osaka Kobe Japan 145
3 Paris France 132
4 Copenhagen Denmark 124
5 Oslo Norway 123
6 Zurich Switzerland 122
7 Frankfurt Germany 118
8 Helsinki Finland 115
9 Geneva Switzerland 115
10 Singapore Singapore 112
11 Hong Kong Hong Kong 110
12 Vienna Austria 109
13 Dublin Ireland 108
14 New York United States 100
15 Morgantown United States 56