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INDIA AND THE MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS (EDUCATION) NEW DELHI, 17JUNE 2004 MDGs RELATING TO EDUCATION Two of the MDG goals are related to education: Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education

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slide1

INDIA

AND

THE MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS

(EDUCATION)

NEW DELHI, 17JUNE 2004

slide2

MDGs RELATING TO EDUCATION

  • Two of the MDG goals are related to education:
  • Goal 2:Achieve universal primary education
      • Target: Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling
  • Goal 3:Promote gender equality and empower women
  • Target: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005 and in all levels of education no later than 2015
slide3

EDUCATION SYSTEM IN INDIA

  • Education a concurrent subject.
  • Education along with 28 other subjects now devolved to local bodies for implementation.
    • However extent of devolution varies from State to State
  • EE system has 190 million children in the age group of 6-14, 3.2 million teachers and about 1 million schools.
  • More than Rs 80,000 crores (Rs 800 billion) spent annually on Education in public sector, of which around 50% is on elementary education
slide4

ELEMENTARY EDUCATION - A FACT SHEET

1951

2001

Increase

Total Enrolment (Million)

22.3

158

7 times

Enrolment of Girls (Million)

5.9

69

11 times

44% 1.6 times

Girls enrolment in primary

28%

Pri. & upper pri. schools

4 times

2,23,000

8,83667

6,24,000

33,96,000

Number of Teachers

5 times

GER (Primary)

42%

96% 2.3 times

60%

GER (Upper Primary)

12%

5 times

Access to schools (1983)

--

--

  • Primary School (within 1 km.)

98%

--

--

  • UP School (within 3 kms.)

90%

Literacy

17%

65% 4 times

  • Increased expenditure on education:

19 billion dollars in 2001-02, i.e. 4.1 % of GDP (up from 0.64 % in 1951-52) and 14% of annual budget (up from 8%) of Central and State Governments together - of which 50% is on elementary education

slide5

a) Enrolment

Upper Primary

2001

1951

2001

1951

Primary

Figures in Million

slide7

c) Share of Girls’ Enrolment in Total Enrolment

%

2001

%

Primary

1951

%

2001

%

1951

Upper Primary

In %

slide8

WHERE ARE WE VIS-A-VIS MDG GOALS

  • Completion of primary schooling by all children:
    • Still, out of 190 million children, around six million children are out of school
    • Of all children enrolled in Class I, 39% drop-out by Class V (as in 2001)
  • Gender equality in education
    • Difference between boys and girls indices still remains:

Primary Upper Primary Secondary

GER 18.4 15.7 10.5

Drop-out 1.5 4.0 4.4

rate (I-V) (I-VIII) (I-X)

IMPROVING ENROLMENT, COMPLETION, GENDER PARITY A BIG CHALLENGE

slide9

OTHER CHALLENGES

  • Student, Teacher attendance
    • Student attendance around 67%
    • Teacher attendance around 75%
  • Low levels of learning achievement. Need for improvement of quality.
  • Low participation of girls, tribals and hardest to reach groups (working children, urban deprived children, etc.).
  • Inadequate school infrastructure.
slide10

OPPORTUNITIES

  • Interventions so far have brought the country to a stage from where UEE appears eminently feasible
  • Evidence of increased community participation in education, ensuring better planning, implementation and monitoring
  • Increased parental awareness and demand for education
  • Sense of urgency to achieve UEE both at provincial and national level.
  • Presence of political will and commitment towards this task
slide11

SOLUTIONS EVOLVED TO MEET THE CHALLENGES

  • LEGAL FRAMEWORK PROVIDED BY MAKING ELEMENTARY EDUCATION A FUNDAMENTAL RIGHT
  • SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN (SSA) STARTED TO MAKE THIS RIGHT EFFECTIVE
  • MID-DAY MEAL TO ALL CHILDREN (100 MILLION) IN PRIMARY SECTIONS, WITH EXPANSION UPTO SECONDARY IN A PHASED MANNER
  • CONTEXT SPECIFIC INTERVENTIONS FOR DIFFERENT GROUPS
ee as a fundamental right
EE AS A FUNDAMENTAL RIGHT
  • A new Article 21A inserted in the Constitution, through Constitution (86th Amendment) Act, 2002:

'The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years in such manneras the State may, by law, determine.’

  • CentralLegislation to make this Right operational under anvil
  • Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, the principle vehicle of Centre and States to fulfil their obligation
ssa objectives
SSA OBJECTIVES
  • All children in school, by 2003;
  • All children complete five years of primary schooling by 2007
  • All children complete eight years of elementary schooling by 2010
  • Focus on elementary education of satisfactory quality with emphasis on education for life
  • Bridge all gender and social category gaps in primary by 2007 and elementary by 2010
  • Universal retention by 2010
slide14

OTHER SUPPORTING PROGRAMMES

  • Gender Specific programmes focussing on girls
    • Mahila Samakhya for women empowerment through education
    • Girls education as a SSA component for backward blocks
    • KBSV - residential schools for SC/ST/OBC girls
  • Teacher education scheme to improve quality of teacher support to elementary education
  • Mid-day meal scheme with the twin objective of increasing nutrition and enrolment
  • National Literacy Mission for non-literate adults.
    • Of which 60% are female learners
slide15

Special Focus for Educationally Weaker States

The ten educationally weaker States have received proportionately higher amount under SSA in 2002-04:

(Rs million)

slide16

FINANCIAL PROVISIONS

  • Tenth Plan allocation for Elementary Education is Rs 28750 crores (Rs 287.50 billion)
    • SSA allocation Rs 17000 crores (Rs 170 billion) against 10th Plan GOI requirement Rs 32000 crores (Rs 320 billion)
    • In addition, allocation for DPEP, MDM, TE, etc for a total amount of Rs 11750 crores (Rs 117.50 billion)
  • Allocation for EE in 2004-05: Rs 6000 crores (Rs 60 billion)
  • Further resource generation:
    • External Aid (Rs 4700 crores or Rs 47 billion so far)
    • Contribution by NGOs, Private sector and community at large
    • Cess for education ?
slide17

TRACKING PROGRESS

  • Computerized Annual Educational Management Information System (EMIS)
  • Quarterly Project Management Information System (PMIS) on qualitative and quantitative indicators
  • Field monitoring through 42 Social Science Institutions and some financial management organisations
slide18

THANK YOU

Visit us at www.education.nic.in