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Slavery and The War Between the States

Slavery and The War Between the States

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Slavery and The War Between the States

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  1. Slavery and The War Between the States

  2. Antebellum Northwest Ordinance 3/5th Compromise 20 year moratorium on slave trade Fugitive Slave clause (Constitu) Missouri Compromise (1820) Abolitionism William Lloyd Garrison/The Liberator Fredrick Douglas/ North Star Underground Railroad Wilmot Proviso The 1850's: Decade of Crisis Compromise of 1850 Fugitive Slave Act Uncle Tom's Cabin Kansas-Nebraska Act Demise of the Whig Party Emergence of the Republican Party Dred Scott decision and Lecompton crisis Lincoln-Douglas debates, 1858 John Brown's raid The election of 1860 Abraham Lincoln The secession crisis During and After the Civil War Emancipation Proclamation Black Soldiers- 54th Massachusetts You Need to Know

  3. Civil War DBQ: • To what extent was the secession of the Southern states the result of the breakdown in the legacy of compromise that began with the constitutional convention?

  4. DBQ Outline Introduction- History of Slavery in the United States has been a history of compromise The conflict between the pro-slavery and anti-slavery groups in America resulted in the decision of the Southern states to secede. • I- Constitution and Compromises Before 1950

  5. Missouri Compromise 1820

  6. Missouri Compromise: • 1818 settlers in Missouri territory requested admission to the Union • The question rose, should it be a slave state or a free state? • Henry Clay- leader in Congress from Kentucky – • Conflict emerged between Southern and Northern groups. • He created a compromise- to allow equal number of slave and free states • Maine enters as a free state and Missouri enters as a slave state. • Provided for the entrance of new states in the Louisiana Purchase, Slavery is not allowed above 36º 30’

  7. “Cotton is King” • Cotton made up half the value of all American exports after 1840. • The South produced more than half of the entire world’s supply of cotton. • 75% of the Cotton used in England’s Industry was from the South.

  8. The “Peculiar Institution” • 1860 4 Million Slaves (due to natural reproduction) • Chattel • 1808 slave importing slaves was outlawed (Smuggling was prevalent) • See “Amistad” film • $2 Billion in capital 1860 • Florida, Mississippi, Alabama, and Louisiana had majority or near majority of blacks

  9. Abolitionism • Extremist movement in the North to end Slavery (Christian based) • Saw slavery as a moral issue clearly wrong/evil • Religious foundations • Massachusetts- key- location • Agitated for end of slavery • Wanted to stop the spread of slavery in the Expansion of the country

  10. Quakers were early abolitionists The movement to end slavery and free African Americans 100 plus societies in the North Some suggested that Former slaves be resettled in Africa The American Colonization Society 1817 (Liberia 1822) Some said former slaves remain in US as free people. Abolitionist Movement:

  11. Abolitionist Movement is seen as an extremist group and Fringe But begins to gradually increase in popularity Second Great Awakening fuels this movement Used Pamphlets and newspapers to persuade people of the Evil of slavery Sent Abolitionist materials in US Mail into the South Early Religious Northern Abolitionist Leaders: Theodore Weld- preacher of Lyman Beecher (Father of Harriet Beecher Stowe) Reverend Elijah P. Lovejoy (killed by a mob in NY) Abolitionists were seen as dangerous radicals by most people in the North and South. 1830s

  12. North and South Attitudes on Race • “Nothing can be more unfounded and false that all men are born free and equal for it rests upon the assumption of a fact which is contrary to universal observation.” • De Tocqueville “The most dreadful of all evils that threaten the future of the United States arises from the presence of blacks on its soil… • Even in the North were slavery was outlawed: “If he presents himself to vote, he runs a risk to his life. Oppressed, he can complain, but he finds only whites among his judges… His son is excluded from the school where the descendents of Europeans come to be instructed. In theaters he cannot buy for the price of gold the right to be placed at the side of one who was his master; in hospitals he lies apart” • “The black is permitted to beseech God as whites, but not to pray to him at the same altar…” • Blacks could not vote, testify in court, serve on juries and most states disallowed new black immigration.

  13. William Lloyd Garrison • Leading Abolitionist, • published a newspaper The Liberator • His paper advocated and called for immediate emancipation • “I will be harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice… I am in earnest- I will not equivocate- I will not excuse- I will not retreat a single inche- and I WILL BE HEARD!” • Formed theAmerican Anti-Slavery Society

  14. Fredrick Douglass • Greatest Black abolitionist • Escaped slave in 1838 (age 21) • Lectured for the cause • a former slave, well educated and advocated the end of Slavery at any means possible. Published the North Star

  15. Douglass Garrison Abolitionists

  16. The seeds of the Women’s Suffrage and Rights Movement will also be found in the Abolition movement. Harriet Tubman- African American woman, slave, smuggler in the Underground Railroad Harriet Beecher Stowe –Author, Uncle Tom’s Cabin, Anti-Slavery novel, spurs abolitionism Mary Lyon Angelina and Sarah Grimké- abolitionist from South Carolina, with her sister Angelina, the Grimke Sisters Elizabeth Cady Stanton- advocate for abolition and Women’s suffrage Lucreita Mott- abolitionist, believed in both the rights of women and the rights of blacks. Sojourner Truth- African American feminist abolitionist, former slave- Women in the Abolitionist Movement

  17. Southern Response to Abolitionism • Southerners are increasingly sensitive to Abolitionist movement • They end emancipation • Increase limits on freed blacks • Become more fearful of slave rebellions- • Gabriel Prosser -1800 Virginia • Denamrk Vessey - 1821 • Nat Turner- 1831

  18. Freed Blacks • 1860, South about 250,000 • Black Codes- laws in the South limiting Slaves • Limited in occupations • Apartheid- laws based on race • Could not vote • Could not testify against whites in court • Were limited in educational opportunity • Racism in the North was also- very prevalent • Example- Fredrick Douglass was attacked many times in the North

  19. Nat Turner-Rebellion 1832 • Slave Rebellion • In Virginia • Killed

  20. Underground Railroad: • Secret group of abolitionists who helped runaway slaves travel to Canada • Harriet Tubman- former slave helped people escape North

  21. Wilmot Proviso 1846 • Amendment- to the settlement of Mexican American War • Said no slavery allowed in land obtained from Mexico- • California, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico… • (It did not pass the Senate) • Crittenden Compromise (is similar)

  22. Ostend Manifesto Aix la Chapelle, Oct 28, 1854. • We arrived at the conclusion, and are thoroughly convinced, that an immediate and earnest effort ought to be made by the government of the United States to purchase Cuba from Spain at any price for which it can be obtained… Yours, very respectfully, James Buchanan J.Y. Mason Pierre Soule To: Hon. William L. Marcy, Secretary of State.

  23. Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1852 • Abolitionist propaganda • Harriet Beecher Stowe • Novel designed to create anger among population • Novel inflamed tensions and anger over Slavery by both North and South

  24. map • California • Popular Sovereignty- in Former Mexican land • Fugitive Slave Law • Wilmot Proviso fails • No Slave Trade in Washington DC

  25. Clay Compromise • “Here is our country, on the verge of a civil war, which everyone pretends to be anxious to avoid yet everyone want his own way irrespective of the wishes of others.”

  26. Compromise of 1850: • Clay and Webster • States entering the Union, California • Compromise between Northern and Southern powers in Congress • California enters the Union as a free state • South gets a new Fugitive Slave Law said escaped slaves could be recaptured in the North and that people helping slaves could be prosecuted- $1000 fine and 6 months in jail. • Slavery and Popular Sovereignty Territories that are ready for statehood could decide if they wanted slavery • Slave Trade in Washington DC is banned

  27. Fugitive Slave Law: • Slaves that escape, were to be arrested and returned to their owners • Anyone convicted of helping a fugitive slave was liable for a fine of $1000. and imprisonment for up to six months

  28. Kansas-Nebraska Act • Kansas Nebraska Act 1854: Very important • Sponsored by Senator Steven Douglas of Illinois • Wanted to pass a railroad bill- had to appease Southern interests • Repealed the Missouri Compromise- now slavery would be allowed in Louisiana Purchase- if requirements were met • Said that territories of Kansas and Nebraska could decide through a vote of the people if they wanted slavery or not (Popular Sovereignty)

  29. Kansas-Nebraska Act and Bleeding Kansas • Consequences: • Destroys and divides the Whig party • Divides Northern Democrats- those that don’t want the expansion of slavery leave party create an new and different Republican Party • Causes fighting in Kansas- Pro-slavery factions (from Missouri) vs Anti-Slavery Factions from North East (John Brown begins there) • Two territorial governments are formed- one slave (Lecompton) one free (Lawerence or Topeka), this is a mini civil war known as “Bleeding Kansas”

  30. Emergence of Republican Party 1854 • As people began to be more intolerant and sensitive to slavery a new political party developed. • Opposed Kansas-Nebraska Act and spread of slavery in the territories • The party becomes an “umbrella group” United a number of anti-slavery groups- abolitionists, Free Soilers, Whigs, Democrats, Know Nothings

  31. Sumner-Brooks Affair 1856

  32. How did the South react to the Dredd Scott Case? Why does John Brown scare the hell out of the Southerners?

  33. Why did the Dredd Scott Case cause so much anger in the North?

  34. Dred Scott Case 1857 • Dred Scott was a slave who lived in Missouri • His owner took him to Illinois and Wisconsin and back to Missouri • Scott brought a law suit for his freedom, it went to the Supreme Court • He argued that he had lived in a free state and therefore he should be free. • The Taney Chief Justice court ruled against Scott “Scott lacked legal standing to sue in Federal Court because he was not, nor ever could be a citizen.” • “Being in free territory did not make a slave free.” • The court cited the 5th amendment that protects property, including slaves.

  35. Constitutional Justifications: US Constitution Article 4 section 2- “No person held to service or labor in one state… escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labor…” US Constitution, Article 4, section 3- “the Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules and regulations respecting the Territory or other property belonging to the United States…” (Dissenting argument) Key point: The Dred Scott Case strengthened and expanded Slave owners’ rights- Caused the rejection of all the slavery related compromises- now slavery could take place in free states. Taney Court Ruled Dredd Scott 1857

  36. Lincoln’s Response to Dredd Scott Case • Lincoln believed that Taney’s ruling was; • “Exceptional, plainly founded on error, at variance with all precedents and not at all settled.” (History Now Journal article) • “We know that the court that made it, has often over-ruled its own decisions, and we shall do what we can to have it to over-rule this.” • Each public functionary must support the Constitution, as he understands it.” Lincoln is very Sneaky interpreting the significance of court cases! “I will tell you here that General Jackson once said each man was bound to support the Constitution as ‘he understood it.’ Now, Judge Douglas understands the Constitution according to the Dred Scott decision, and he is bound to support it as he understands it. I understand it another way, and therefore I am bound to support it in the way in which I understand it.” (Lincoln Douglas Debate)

  37. This is handsome?

  38. Why does John Brown scare the hell out of the Southerners?

  39. John Brown was a radical abolitionist He wanted slaves to rise up and take their freedom 1856 he and some followers fought pro-slavery men in Kansas. Pottawatomie- he killed pro-slavery innocent men He and 21 other, both white and black attacked the Federal Arsenal at Harpers Ferry and was defeated, tried and executed Caused reaction both in the North and South, some Northerners celebrated Brown’s actions The South became outraged and convinced that they could not live safely with the North- they became convinced that the North wanted slave rebellion. John Brown’s Raid 1859

  40. “Northern Friends of Constitutional Government”

  41. Lincoln • Lincoln’s Election (page 163-64) • Lincoln, a Congressman from Illinois, first ran for Senate against Douglas- lost- • Lincoln believed Slavery was Immoral • Slavery in the territories should be disallowed • Believed slavery should be abolished with a constitutional amendment

  42. Lincoln Douglas Debates 1858 • He gained notoriety from the Senatorial election in Illinois (Lincoln Douglas debates) • He and Stephan Douglas held a series of (6) debates. • Douglas was in favor of popular sovereignty • “Freeport Doctrine”- the people will decide the issue, not the supreme court. • In those debates he put forth the idea that the concept of Equality voiced in the Declaration of Independence was meant for all human beings and that the government of the US should support this interpretation…

  43. Lincoln’s View • Philosophy • EQUALITY THROUGH CONSTITUTIONAL MEANS- meant protecting the established order but working for change in a clear, law abiding framework. • Mostly an anti-expansion of slavery moderate Republican

  44. Lincoln on Race 1858 • “I as well as Judge Douglas, am in favor of the race to which I belong, having the superior position. I have never said anything to the contrary, but I hold that notwithstanding all this, there is no reason in the world why the negro is not entitled to have all the natural rights enumerated in the Declaration of Independence, the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. I hold that he is as much entitled to those rights as the white man. • I agree with Judge Douglas he is not my equal in many respects- certainly not in color, perhaps not in moral or intellectual endowment. • But in the right to eat the bread, without leave of anybody else, which his own hands earns, he is my equal and the equal of Judge Douglas, and the equal of every living man.”

  45. Lincoln View • All humans deserve freedom. “All me are born equally free. The natural right to human liberty applied to all people. Where no law established slavery, freedom prevailed.” • (Territories)

  46. Lincoln • 1860 Republicans nominated Lincoln for president • He tried to reassure the South by stating, A Republican administration would not “Interfere with their slaves, or with them about their slaves.”

  47. Democrats split into Two North- Stephen Douglas- pro-compromise South- Breckenridge- the Southern candidate Republican Umbrella Group: Northern Anti-Slavery Democrats Anti-Immigration “Know Nothings” Former Whigs Abolitionists extremists Election of 1860

  48. Victories by Slave Holding States Dread Scott Decision Fighting in Kansas over Slavery Kansas-Nebraska Act Compromise of 1850 Enforcement of Fugitive Slave Act Lincoln was not allowed on the ballot of 10 Southern states What factors persuaded the North to elect Republicans?