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CARDIO-VASCULAR SYSTEM. Principles Structures Two circuits Pulmonary Systemic Fetal Circulation Heart Details Other details. What Does C-V System do?. Circulate blood throughout entire body for Transport of oxygen to cells Transport of CO2 away from cells

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cardio vascular system
CARDIO-VASCULAR SYSTEM
  • Principles
  • Structures
  • Two circuits
    • Pulmonary
    • Systemic
  • Fetal Circulation
  • Heart Details
  • Other details

Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy

what does c v system do
What Does C-V System do?
  • Circulate blood throughout entire body for
    • Transport of oxygen to cells
    • Transport of CO2 away from cells
    • Transport of nutrients (glucose) to cells
    • Movement of immune system components (cells, antibodies)
    • Transport of endocrine gland secretions

Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy

how does it do it
How does it do it?
  • Heart is pump
  • Arteries and veins are main tubes (plumbing)
    • Arteries Away from Heart
    • Veins to Heart
  • Diffusion happens in capillaries (oxygen, CO2, glucose diffuse in or out of blood)

Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy

slide4

Overall Organization of System

  • Heart/Great Vessels--1 Route
  • Smaller aa. vv.--many routes (collateral circulation)
  • Capillaries—network where diffusion occurs

Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy

slide5

Collateral Circulation

Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy

slide6

Walls of Arteries and Veins

  • Tunica externa
    • Outermost layer
    • CT w/elastin and collagen
    • Strengthens, Anchors
  • Tunica media
    • Middle layer
    • Circular Smooth Muscle
    • Vaso-constriction/dilation
  • Tunica intima
    • Innermost layer
    • Endothelium
    • Minimize friction
  • Lumen

pg 546

Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy

artery vein differences
Artery/Vein differences

Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy

capillaries
Capillaries
  • Microscopic--one cell layer thick
  • Network
  • Bathed in extracellular matrix of areolar tissue
  • Entire goal of C-V system is to get blood into capillaries where diffusion takes place

Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy

two circulatory paths
Two circulatory paths

Systemic

  • Pulmonary

Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy

slide11

GREAT VESSELS

  • Aorta
  • IVC, SVC
  • Pulmonary Trunk
  • Pulmonary Veins

Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy

slide12

Heart Chambers and Valves

Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy

slide13

Right Heart Chambers: Pulmonary Circuit

  • Right Atrium (forms most of posterior of heart)
    • Receives O2-poor blood from body via IVC, SVC, Coronary sinus
    • Ventral wall = rough Pectinate muscle
    • Fossa Ovalis- on interatrial septum, remnant of Foramen Ovale
  • Right Ventricle
    • Receives O2-poor blood from right atrium through tricuspid valve
    • Pumps blood to lungs via Pulmonary Semilunar Valve in pulmonary trunk
    • Trabeculae Carnae along ventral surface
    • Papillary Muscle-cone-shaped muscle to which chordae tendinae are anchored
    • Moderator Band-muscular band connecting anterior papillary muscle to interventricular septum

Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy

slide14

Left Heart Chambers: Systemic Circuit

  • Left Atrium
    • Receives O2-rich blood from 4 Pulmonary Veins
    • Pectinate Muscles line only auricle
  • Left Ventricle (forms apex of heart)
    • Receives blood from Left Atrium via bicuspid valve
    • Pumps blood into aorta via Aortic Semilunar Valve to body
    • Same structures as Rt Ventricle: Trabeculae carnae, Papillary muscles, Chordae tendinae
    • No Moderator Band

Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy

slide15

Heart Valves: Lub*-Dub**

  • *Tricuspid Valve: Right AV valve
    • 3 Cusps (flaps) made of endocardium and CT
    • Cusps anchored in Rt. Ventricle by Chordae Tendinae
    • Chordae Tendinae prevent inversion of cusps into atrium
    • Flow of blood pushes cusps open
    • When ventricle in diastole (relaxed), cusps hang limp in ventricle
    • Ventricular contraction increases pressure and forces cusps closed
  • *Bicuspid (Mitral) Valve: Left AV valve
    • 2 cusps anchored in Lft. Ventricle by chordae tendinae
    • Functions same as Rt. AV valve
  • **Semilunar valves: prevents backflow in large arteries
    • Pulmonary Semilunar Valve: Rt Ventricle and Pulmonary Trunk
    • Aortic Semilunar Valve: Left Ventricle and Aorta
    • 3 cusps: blood rushes past they’re flattened, as it settles they’re pushed down (valve closed)

Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy

slide16

Another View

Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy

slide17

Location of Heart in Thorax

pg 523

Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy

slide18

Location of Heart in Chest

  • Oblique Position
  • Apex = Left of Midline (5th ICS), Anterior to rest of heart
  • Base (posterior surface) sits on vertebral column
  • Superior Right = 3rd Costal Cartilage, 1” right midsternum
  • Superior Left = 2nd Costal Cartilage, 1” left midsternum
  • Inferior Right = 6th Costal Cartilage, 1” right midsternum
  • Inferior Left = 5th Intercostal Space at Midclavicular line

Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy

slide19

Epicardium (most superficial)

– Visceral pleura

  • Myocardium (middle layer)
    • Cardiac muscle
    • Contracts
  • Endocardium (inner)
    • Endothelium on CT
    • Lines the heart
    • Creates the valves

Heart Wall

How does heart muscle get blood supply?

pg 524

Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy

blood supply to heart wall
Blood supply to heart wall
  • Rt and Lft Coronary Arteries
    • Branch from Ascending Aorta
    • Have multiple branches along heart
    • Sit in Coronary Sulcus
    • Coronary Heart Disease
  • Cardiac Veins
    • Coronary Sinus (largest)
    • Many branches feed into sinus
    • Sit in Coronary Sulcus

Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy

heart innervation
Heart Innervation
  • Heart receives visceral motor innervation
    • Sympathetic (speeds up)
    • Parasympathetic (slows down) p. 534

Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy

slide22

Fetal Circulation

  • No circulation to lungs
    • Foramen ovale
    • Ductus arteriosum
  • Circulation must go to placenta
    • Umbilical aa., vv.

Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy

adult remnants of fetal circulation
Adult remnants of fetal circulation

Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy

slide24

Hepatic Portal System

Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy

slide25

Lymphatic System…The Players:

  • Lymph- clear fluid from loose areolar CT around capillaries
  • Lymphatic capillaries (near blood capillaries) 
  • Lymph collecting vessels (small, 3 tunicas, valves)
  • Lymph nodes (sit along collecting vessels)-clean lymph of pathogens, they are NOT glands
  • Lymphatic trunks (convergence large collecting vessels)
    • Lumbar, intestinal, bronchomediastinal, subclavian, jugular
  • Lymphatic ducts  empty into veins of neck

Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy

slide26

Lymphatic System--Function

  • Function: to collect excess tissue fluid collecting at arteriole end and return leaked blood proteins to blood (maintain osmotic pressure needed to take up water into bloodstream)
  • Lymph moved through vessels
    • Pulse of nearby arteries
    • Contraction of surrounding skeletal muscle
    • Regular movement of body (wiggling legs)
    • Muscle in Tunica Media
  • Lacteals-lymphatic capillaries w/unique function
    • In mucosa of small intestine, receive digested fat from intestine
    • Fatty lymph becomes milky = Chyle
    • Chyle goes to bloodstream

Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy