Adapting textbook and activities in science
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Adapting Textbook and Activities in Science. Tom Scruggs, Margo A. Mastropieri, Jennifer Norland, Pam Simpkins George Mason University Janet Graetz Oakland University Papers presented at the annual meeting of the Council for Exceptional Children, New Orleans, April 15, 2004.

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Adapting textbook and activities in science
Adapting Textbook and Activities in Science

Tom Scruggs, Margo A. Mastropieri,

Jennifer Norland, Pam Simpkins

George Mason University

Janet Graetz

Oakland University


Approaches to science instruction

Textbook

high language demands

high literacy demands

substantial vocabulary

abstract content

high factual learning demands

factual recall on tests

Activities-oriented

reduced language

reduced literacy

reduced vocabulary

hands-on experiences & “enactments”

minimal testing

performance-based testing

Approaches to Science Instruction


Textbook challenges
Textbook Challenges

  • Increase in difficulty with grade level

  • Discrepancy between reading level of students and readability of textbooks (Kinder, Bursuck & Epstein, 1992)

  • Breadth vs Depth of Coverage

  • Unfriendly nature of textbooks (Armbruster & Anderson,1988)

  • Introduction of large number of vocabulary words (Yager, 1983)


Secondary science
Secondary Science

  • Typical instructional formats

    • Lecture to entire class with discussion

    • Lab activities with partners

    • Rapid pace of teacher presentations

    • Rapid pace through textbook

    • One class period for lab work

    • Tests and quizzes administered on chapter by chapter and unit basis linked to high stakes state wide tests


Effective instruction
Effective Instruction

  • Maximized student engagement

  • Direct questioning directly relevant to objectives

  • High rate of responding

  • Step-by-step instruction

  • Frequent monitoring of learner progress toward meeting prespecified objectives (House et al., 1978; Rosenshine & Stevens, 1986)


Pass variables
PASS Variables

  • Prioritize Objectives

  • Adapt materials, environment, and instruction

  • SCREAM variables

    • structure, clarity, redundancy, enthusiasm, appropriate rate, maximize engagement

  • Systematic evaluation


Strategies for adapting textbook approaches to science learning
Strategies for Adapting Textbook Approaches to Science Learning

  • Textbook Selection

  • Mnemonic strategies

    • IT FITS Strategy

  • Text-processing strategies

    • Powerpoint

    • Framed Outlines

    • Spatial Organizers

    • TRAVEL strategy

    • Text structure processing

  • Classwide wide peer tutoring


Criteria for selecting textbooks
Criteria for Selecting Textbooks Learning

Did I ...

  • Consider adequacy of content coverage?

  • Evaluate

    • readability

    • text structure

    • text coherence

    • instructional strategies

    • assessment procedures

    • attractiveness

    • supplemental materials

    • practice activities?


The keyword strategy
The Keyword Strategy Learning

  • Helpful for learning science vocabulary

  • Steps in using the keyword method:

    • Recode unfamiliar word to an acoustically similar but familiar word or keyword.

    • Relate the the keyword in an interactive picture with the to-be-remembered information

    • Retrievethe new definition by thinking of the keyword and what was happening in the interactive picture


It fits strategy
IT FITS Strategy* Learning

  • Identify the term

  • Tell the definition of the term

  • Find a keyword

  • Imagine the definition doing something with the keyword

  • Think about the definition doing something with the keyword

  • Study what you imagined until you know the definition

    *King-Sears, M.E., Mercer, C.D., & Sindelar, P.T. (1992). Toward independence with keyword mnemonics: A strategy for science vocabulary instruction. Remedial and Special Education, 13, 22-33.


Powerpoint presentations
PowerPoint Presentations Learning

  • Help focus attention

  • Reinforce vocabulary, important points

  • Highlight concepts and relationships

  • Add colors, pictures, animation and/or sound

  • Interactive, requires student responses

  • Highlight steps in activities

  • Students can create their own PowerPoint presentations


Graphic organizers
Graphic Organizers Learning

  • Inspiration or Kidspiration software

    • Down load free 30 version at inspiration.com

  • Draw with crayons

  • Use Power point or other software


Main idea strategy
Main Idea Strategy Learning

1. What are you studying the passage for?

2. Find the main idea in the paragraph and underline it/them.

3. Think of a question about the main idea you have underlined.

4. Learn the answer to your question.

5. Always look back at the questions and answers


Sample summarization strategy malone mastropieri
Sample Summarization Strategy Learning(Malone & Mastropieri)

  • Read the paragraph - ask and answer:

    • Who or what is it about?

    • What is happening to them?

  • Use those answers to write a summary sentence

    • tells what the whole paragraph is about

  • Use self-monitoring card


Text structure based strategies
Text-Structure Based Strategies Learning

  • Main idea strategy (find & underline, write down, & study information)

  • List strategy (find & underline topic of passage, write down topic/subtopic, study information)

  • Order strategy sequential (find & underline main topic, write down what was different for each step in passage, study information)


Highlighting self monitoring

Did I examine my book for boldfaced print, types of subheadings, charts, maps, or figures?

Did I find important information byasking and answering questions:

-is it new information?

-is it a new concept?

-is it a new vocabulary word?

-does it describe important people or events?

-does it list causes of events or things?

-is it a main idea?

-does it compare and contrast things?

-did my teacher emphasize it?

Did I select information to be highlighted?

Did I highlight it?

Did I test myself on the highlighted information by asking and answering questions about the highlighted information?

Did I reward myself for good strategy use?

Highlighting Self-Monitoring


Tutoring condition materials
Tutoring Condition Materials subheadings, charts, maps, or figures?

  • Rules and Procedures for Tutoring

  • Folders containing strategy sheets

    • What is …

    • A strategy to help you remember

    • What else is important about . ?

    • What is an example of --- ?

  • Student recording sheets


Scientific process skills
Scientific Process Skills subheadings, charts, maps, or figures?

  • Observing,

  • Classifying

  • Predicting

  • Comparing

  • Contrasting

  • Charting, Graphing, Recording Data


Various science activities

Measuring and pouring subheadings, charts, maps, or figures?

Mapping

Invention and discovery

Kits and models

Human anatomy

Plants and animals

Astronomy

Force and motion

Physics of sound

Solids, liquids, gases

Microscopes

Powders, mixtures and solutions

Weather

Water activities

Rocks, minerals and fossils

Earth science, landforms

Magnetism and electricity

Light and color

Various Science Activities


Problem solving
Problem Solving subheadings, charts, maps, or figures?

  • Very structured and guided instruction

  • Build ecosystem and observe plant, animal growth & interactions with environment

  • Predict effects of acid rain, too much salt, too much fertilizer on your ecocolumn

  • PORC = predict, observe, record, compare

  • Minimal insight required for success

  • Disability specific adaptations made


Disability specific adaptations
Disability-Specific Adaptations subheadings, charts, maps, or figures?

  • Vocabulary check-sheets

  • Modified worksheets

  • Communication boards

  • Teacher and peer assistance with reading tasks

  • Special matching of peers in small groups

  • Testing adaptations - oral and transcribed


Adapt but increase interest
Adapt, but Increase Interest subheadings, charts, maps, or figures?

  • Concrete lessons

  • Meaningful lessons

  • Hands-on materials

  • Illustrations

  • Discrepant events

  • Use novelty to involve students


Summary
Summary subheadings, charts, maps, or figures?

  • Tension exists between demands of high stakes testing and teaching students with disabilities in inclusive classes

  • A variety of evidence-based techniques have improved performance

    • Extend interaction and practice with text

      • Text adaptations

    • Use strategies with peer tutors

    • Enhance meaningfulness and concreteness

    • Use activities to enhance meaningfulness

      • Adapt activities to ensure success


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