management from the perspective of systems theory l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Management from the perspective of systems theory PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Management from the perspective of systems theory

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 45

Management from the perspective of systems theory - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 580 Views
  • Uploaded on

Management from the perspective of systems theory Peter Andras and Bruce G Charlton University of Newcastle peter.andras@ncl.ac.uk bruce.charlton@ncl.ac.uk Overview Management theories Abstract communication systems Management systems Discussion Conclusions Management theories

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Management from the perspective of systems theory' - LionelDale


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
management from the perspective of systems theory

Management from the perspective of systems theory

Peter Andras and Bruce G Charlton

University of Newcastle

peter.andras@ncl.ac.uk

bruce.charlton@ncl.ac.uk

overview
Overview
  • Management theories
  • Abstract communication systems
  • Management systems
  • Discussion
  • Conclusions
management phenomena
Management phenomena
  • Usual theories focus on phenomenological aspects:
      • Types of behaviours of managers
      • Roles of managers
theories
Theories
  • Fayol: planning, organising, commanding, coordinating and controling
  • Mintzberg: informational, decisional and leadership roles
charisma
Charisma
  • Charismatic leader:
      • empathically communicate with a large group of followers
      • motivate followers to overcome temporarily their individual limitations
      • find convincing candidate solutions of difficult complex problems in relatively short time
  • Hard to treat in the context of usual theories
complexity vs standardisation
Complexity vs. standardisation
  • Management theories typically praise standardisation and aim to decrease complexity
  • Some more recent theories claim important roles for complexity
  • Which is better ?
why isn t this good
Why isn’t this good ?
  • Preferred viewpoint
  • Imposed organisational values

 restricted validity

communications
Communications

Sender Signal Receiver

Referenced communications

communication systems
Communication systems
  • Communication system: dense set of inter-referencing communications
  • The communication units are NOT part of the communication system

Communication system

system and environment
System and environment
  • All other communications outside the system constitute the environment
  • System: communicates about itself, and in a complementary sense about the environment
  • System: defined by its own language = rules of referencing
example science
Example: science
  • Scientific communications:
      • Communications and notes about experimental measurements
      • Scientific papers
      • Tables of scientific data
  • Scientific communications refer to other scientific communications
  • Science: the dense set of inter-referencing scientific communications
  • Science language – is part or is it not part of science
reproduction and expansion
Reproduction and expansion
  • Systems reproduce by generating new communications according to their own rules
  • Environmental constraints
  • Systems expand if they describe/predict successfully their environment
  • Competition by expansion
example economy
Example: economy
  • Low inflation economy – the monetary system describes well the economy and allows appropriate pricing of goods and services
  • High inflation economy – mismatch between the actual economy and the one predicted/described by the monetary system
  • Low inflation economies follow stable growth, high inflation economies fluctuate and may recess
limits of expansion
Limits of expansion
  • Length of non-random sequences of referencing
  • Longer sequences – better description/prediction of the environment

p1

p4

p2

p3

p3’

p4’

p2’

p1’

example companies
Example: companies
  • Company 1: paper handling of data
  • Company 2: electronic handling of data
  • More reliable electronic data handling allows better analysis and prediction of the environment and faster growth for Company 2
subsystems and simplification
Subsystems and simplification
  • Subsystems: restricted referencing rules  dense cluster of inter-referencing communications following stricter rules within the system
  • Simplification: reduced set of communication symbols  less ambiguity in referencing
  • Subsystems, simplification  faster expansion of the system
example small and large companies
Example: small and large companies
  • Small company: no separation between types of activities (marketing, HR, strategy)
  • Large company: many separate specialized units, speaking specialised simplified languages
  • Large companies grow faster in average than small companies (below the limit of their growth)
memory
Memory
  • Memory: reproduction of earlier communications
  • Memories allow direct reference to earlier communications  extension of referencing sequences  faster expansion
  • Example: written text – memory of spoken words  expansion of science with the advent of printing
information subsystem
Information subsystem
  • Newly generated memory communications referencing other memory communications
  • Subsystem of memory communications  information subsystem
  • Information subsystem increases the expansion potential of the system
example developing company
Example: developing company
  • Self-employed: small scale business
  • Products, services: storage of information  planning, organising and scheduling subcontractors: information subsystem  company
  • Company: faster growing larger scale business
identity subsystem
Identity subsystem
  • Information subsystem: communications about memories that can be referenced as memories
  • Identity subsystem: information subsystem that generates communications, which are referenced regularly and guide the generation of correct communications, assuring the continual reproduction and expansion of the system
  • Systems with identity subsystem reproduce and expand faster than systems without such subsystem
example rule of law
Example: rule of law
  • Politics – memory: laws  legal system
  • Rule of law: the legal system changes slowly and provides stable references for political communications over long periods  the legal system acts as an identity subsystem for the political system
  • Frequently changing legal system: no stable references for political communications  there is no identity subsystem for the political system
  • Countries with rule of law develop faster than countries with frequently changing legal system
organisations
Organisations
  • Organisation: system of human communications (including communications with and using artefacts)
  • Memories of organisations: products, services, contracts, manuals, data collections, etc.
management and power
Management and power
  • Phenomenological link between management and power/authority
  • Systems theory: management = operations with memories of the organisation = generation of new memory communications that reference other organisational memories
management information subsystem
Management: information subsystem
  • Management: system of memory communications  information subsystem of the organisation
  • Organisations with management subsystem reproduce and expand faster than organisations without management
phenomenology information processing
Phenomenology: information processing
  • Management: information subsystem:
      • Collection of information about the environment and the organisation
      • Processing of information within the organisation
      • Generation of information to guide activities of organisation and for the outer world
management identity subsystem
Management: identity subsystem
  • Management: information subsystem  provides regular references for organisational communications (e.g., handbooks, contracts, regulations)  management turns into an identity subsystem
  • Organisations with management acting as identity subsystem reproduce and expand faster than organisations without such management subsystem
phenomenology identity operations
Phenomenology: identity operations
  • Management: identity subsystem:
      • Identity definition: what is and what is not the organisation (e.g., regulations)
      • Identity checking: do actions within the organisation comply with the identity definitions (e.g., evaluation reports)
      • Identity enforcement: assuring that actions and behaviours within the organisation comply with identity definitions (e.g., execution of plans, disciplinary actions)
management subsystems
Management subsystems
  • Subsystems:
      • Marketing
      • Financial management
      • Strategic management
      • Human resources management
  • Subsystems have their own restricted language and facilitate the reproduction and expansion of the organisation
growing management
Growing management
  • Management usually grows faster than the rest of the organisation
  • Management theories do not support usually this excessive growth and intend to reduce it
  • Common sense logic is also against over-bureaucratisation
management should grow
Management should grow
  • Systems theory says that management should grow in order for the organisation to grow
  • The organisation may grow in many case by growing its management and this growth triggers further growth of the organisation
maladaptive growth
Maladaptive growth
  • Not all growth is good
  • Growing management is a response of the organisation system under stress
  • Lack of competition allows maladaptive growth of management
charismatic leaders
Charismatic leaders
  • Charismatic leader:
      • empathically communicate with a large group of followers
      • motivate followers to overcome temporarily their individual limitations
      • find convincing candidate solutions of difficult complex problems in relatively short time
  • Hard to treat in the context of usual theories
changing organisation
Changing organisation
  • Organisations of which environment description shows significant mismatch with their actual environment
  • Such organisations need major changes
  • Charismatic leaders are good choice to lead such changes
charismatic leadership
Charismatic leadership
  • Systems theory: charismatic leaders are good in making some sense of complex situations  they generate communications that induce a rearrangement of the organisation system
  • Charismatic leaders may decrease slightly the complexity of problems, leading to better match between the description of the environment and the actual environment
  • Such innovations may not be very useful in well established organisations without major mismatch between their environment description and their actual environment
  • Charismatic leaders should be appropriate in organisations living in constantly rapidly changing environments
complexity vs standardisation40
Complexity vs. standardisation
  • Many management theories argue in the favour of standardisation
  • Some theories argue for maintaining complexity in organisations
complexity
Complexity
  • Systems theory: environment is infinitely complex
  • Organisational complexity: to what extent is the infinitely complex environment described by the organisation
  • Proxy measure: size of the organisation
standardisation and growth
Standardisation and growth
  • Standardisation  simplification  faster system reproduction and expansion
  • Standardisation leads to faster growing larger and more complex system
  • Also possible to have bad standardisation
good and bad complexity
Good and bad complexity
  • Generally increased system complexity is good, and appropriate standardisation leads to increased organisational complexity
  • Complexity may grow also by slow expansion of the organisation which does not fit to its environment (e.g., maladaptive growth in the lack of competition)
conclusions45
Conclusions
  • Abstract communication systems theory can be applied to analyse organisations and management – great advantage: no fixed phenomenological viewpoint
  • Management: information subsystem of the organisation  identity subsystem of the organisation
  • Applications: management growth, charismatic leadership, complexity vs. standardisation