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Wildlife Management Chapter 3 Some Successes. 3 men instrumental in early successes. Theodore Roosevelt Aldo Leopold Gifford Pinchot. Gifford Pinchot. 1865-1946 Professional forester Educated, science based forest management Director of Forestry (USDA) Governor of PA

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Wildlife Management Chapter 3 Some Successes


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    1. Wildlife ManagementChapter 3 Some Successes • 3 men instrumental in early successes • Theodore Roosevelt Aldo Leopold Gifford Pinchot

    2. Gifford Pinchot • 1865-1946 • Professional forester • Educated, science based forest management • Director of Forestry (USDA) • Governor of PA • Breaking New Ground • The Fight for Conservation • State forest named after him

    3. Pinchot quotes • “The vast possibilities of our great future will become realities only if we make ourselves responsible for that future.” • “Unless we practice conservation, those who come after us will have to pay the price of misery, degradation, and failure for the progress and prosperity of our day.”

    4. Successes in Wildlife Management - Bison • Bison bison • 1905 few hundred left in zoos • Refuges established • Montana (Yellowstone) • Oklahoma (Wichita) • South Dakota • Concurrent programs • Canada (B.b. athabascae) • Wood buffalo • Europe (B. bonasus)

    5. Concerns with Bison Restoration • Competition w/ cattle • Disease • Hunting • Competing uses for national wildlife refuges • Snowmobiles • Skiers • Photographers • Hunters • Food/ out populate refuge

    6. Lead shot Fishing wts (sinkers) Bioaccumulation Remains in sediment bottom of lakes, rivers Non target species Insect food base poisoned Swans, turtles, fish Replace w/ steel shot More expensive Less accurate Lead Poisoning

    7. Return of Wood Ducks • Migratory Bird Act of 1918 • Hunting • Lack of nest sites limited recovery • 1940’s nest box program • 1940’s hunting established again Aix sponsa

    8. Wild Turkey Re-establishment • 1930 - Mostly gone • Trapped wild stock, bred in captivity, then released • 1970 -Hunting again • 1970 – 71 birds shot • 2001 – 31,993 shot • Similar results in Illinois • Est. 135,000 turkeys

    9. Restoring Mammals - Deer • Gone from Illinois 1920’s • Restocked from kentucky • The rest is history • Managed kills – census data • Some state no limits – south • Climate & crops year round • Major deer populations • Illinois Trophy bucks • 500,000 left 100 years ago • Almost 20 million now

    10. Restoring Mammals - Beaver • Drastically lower numbers • Trapped • Fashion – hats, trim • Practical - coats • Now few trappers • Nuisance

    11. Restocked in several states, Illinois, PA, NY, Missouri NY hunted in some parts of state but $$$ spent buying from Louisiana to restock other parts of NY Missouri most succesful Restoring Mammals – River Otter

    12. Restoring Mammals - Elk • 40,000 in Yellowstone • Protected winter habitat, controlled hunting, improved range conditions • 10 western states, • Michigan, VA &PA have herds, • Escapees in ILL from game farms • 1 million now

    13. Species: Sea Otters Seals Whales Walrus US only – eventually internation marine protection Needed due to: Hunting –all marine mammals Native american rights Oil spills (Exxon Valdez) Overfishing – (seal food) El nino (loss of squid –seals) Marine Mammal Protection Act - 1972

    14. Gray Whale Case • 10,000 – 12,000 miles migration • Major league exploitation by many countries • Harvest banned in 1946 by International Whaling commission • 1st protected area in Mexico 1971 • Reached 26,000 individuals 1999 • Now may be starving due to loss of food in the Bering Sea (& Chukchi Sea – Russia) • Global climate change altering nutrient base • Whales washing up dead showing signs of starving

    15. Viscaino Biosphere Reserve • 1988 salt pumping station in this Mexican bay proposed • Primary calving ground • Gave up because risk to whales too great • Link • http://www.acsonline.org/factpack/graywhl.htm

    16. Bird success -Song birds • DDT • Rachel Carson • Silent Spring • Housecats • Disease -feeders

    17. Bird success – hawks & eagles • DDT • Rachel Carson • Breeding programs • California Condor • Bald Eagle

    18. Small mammal successes • Trapping declining • Habitat restoration • Grain farms • Fewer predators

    19. Dealing with Reality • 400 million ducks in US in 1800’s • About 40 million in 1950’s • Current targets aim at 40 million • Less habitat • Less food, cover • Pollution • people Impossible to imagine restoring waterfowl to 1800 & earlier levels True for most species