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Grand Challenges in Electric Power Engineering: Extreme System Reliability. G. T. Heydt Arizona State University Tempe, Arizona Summer Meeting 2002. Electric power quality Extreme bus voltage reliability, for example 'five nines' (i.e., 0.99999 availability), or six nines or even higher

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Grand challenges in electric power engineering extreme system reliability l.jpg

Grand Challenges in Electric Power Engineering:Extreme System Reliability

G. T. HeydtArizona State UniversityTempe, Arizona

Summer Meeting 2002


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  • Electric power quality

  • Extreme bus voltage reliability, for example 'five nines' (i.e., 0.99999 availability), or six nines or even higher

  • Utilization of new transmission and distribution technologies for improvement of reliability

  • Utilization of distributed energy sources (DERs) to improve reliability

  • Working with manufacturers of information technology equipment to reduce load vulnerability


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7 24 utilization of power system ultra high reliability l.jpg
7/24 UTILIZATION OF POWER SYSTEM ULTRA HIGH RELIABILITY

INFORMATION PROCESSING, FINANCIAL SERVICES, AIRLINES, POLICE, MILITARY


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AS A RESPONSE TO THE 1993 TERRORIST BOMBING OF THE WTC, THE PRIMARY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM IN THE BUILDING WAS IMPROVED TO KEEP THE POWER ON IN THE CASE OF SEVERE DISRUPTION OF THE SUPPLY / INTERRUPTION OF THE IN-BUILDING PRIMARY DISTRIBUTION. THERE WERE TEN SUBSTATIONS IN EACH WTC TOWER, ON FLOORS 7, 41, 75, AND 108, AND THE SOUTH TOWER HAD AN ADDITIONAL TENANT OWNED DOUBLY FED SUBSTATION ON FLOOR 43


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THE USE OF MULTIPLE FEEDS, MULTIPLE SUBSTATIONS, AND ISOLATED POWER SUPPLIES KEPT THE POWER ON IN MOST OF THE WTC FOR 102 MINUTES AFTER THE INITIAL STRIKE. IT IS BELIEVED THAT THIS WAS THE MAIN FACTOR IN SAVING THE LIVES OF AS MANY AS 18,000 PEOPLE WHO ESCAPED FROM THE TOWERS BEFORE COLLAPSE


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INDEPENDENCE OF SOURCES ISOLATED POWER SUPPLIES KEPT THE POWER ON IN MOST OF THE WTC FOR 102 MINUTES AFTER THE INITIAL STRIKE. IT IS BELIEVED THAT THIS WAS THE MAIN FACTOR IN SAVING THE LIVES OF AS MANY AS 18,000 PEOPLE WHO ESCAPED FROM THE TOWERS BEFORE COLLAPSE

LOAD

1-P = (1-P1)(1-P2)

TWO FEEDERS

RELIABLE LOAD BUS

The dependence of the sources will result in a much higher outage rate than (1-P1)(1-P2)


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The dependence effect of multiple sources can be modeled using a difference equation of the form

qn+1 = Cqn+(1-C)(q1)1/n qn

whereqn = 1-pn = outage rate of circuit upon addition of nth feeder, C is a correlation coefficient

The(q1)1/nterm is called a discounting term and it accounts for increased potential for dependence for cases of large n (large numbers of feeders)


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DISCOUNTED MODEL using a difference equation of the form

C = 0 indicates no correlation between multiple feeders

C = 1 indicates the feeder outages among several feeders are ‘common mode’


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The addition of feeders to improve reliability has a diminishing effect. For practical cases, use of more than three ‘independent’ feeders of 100% capacity is counter-

productive.


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300 diminishing effect. For practical cases, use of more than three ‘independent’ feeders of 100% capacity is counter-

20

110

30

200

100

EXPECTED CAPACITIES SHOWN


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PROBABILITIES OF UNCOMMON EVENTS diminishing effect. For practical cases, use of more than three ‘independent’ feeders of 100% capacity is counter-

COMMON (?)

Event .

Loosing at roulette 00 in Las Vegas

Loosing the PowerBall

lottery

FAA design

criteria for

aircraft

LIFE

Probability N

97.3684 1.6

99.99995 6.3

0.999999999

0.999999999999

9 to 12

POWER SYSTEM

RELIABILITY

Reliability N Outage time

99.9 3 8h 45 min / yr

99.998631 4.9 1 day / 200 yrs

99.999 5 5 min 15 s / yr

99.99999 7 3.2 s / yr

99.999999 8 18.9 cycles / yr

99.9999999 9 1.8 cycles / yr


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DISTRIBUTED GENERATION diminishing effect. For practical cases, use of more than three ‘independent’ feeders of 100% capacity is counter-

FUEL CELLS

MICROTURBINES

DIESEL SETS

MOTIVATION

RELIABILITY ENHANCEMENT

ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

COGEN APPLICATIONS

TRANSMISSION CONGESTION


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Many alternative generation sources have power electronic interfaces with the 60 Hz load bus. In some designs, the DC bus may be integrated with a battery energy storage system for seamless transfer of the load.


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FUEL CELLS interfaces with the 60 Hz load bus. In some designs, the DC bus may be integrated with a battery energy storage system for seamless transfer of the load.

HYDROGEN

ANODE

CATALYST

DC LOAD

ELECTROLYTE

CATALYST

i(t)

WATER AND HEAT

CATHODE

OXYGEN


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POTENTIAL HIGH EFFICIENCY interfaces with the 60 Hz load bus. In some designs, the DC bus may be integrated with a battery energy storage system for seamless transfer of the load.

SPECIAL APPLICATIONS FOR COGEN

MOBILE (AUTO) AND SPACE APPLICATIONS

A LOT OF PROPONENTS

RELIEVES TRANSMISSION CONGESTION

TRULY INDEPENDENT ENERGY SOURCE

VERY HIGH COST

POTENTIAL RELIABILITY PROBLEMS

NOT GENERALLY COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE

USES EXOTIC MATERIALS / CATALYSTS

HIGH TEMPERATURE / SAFETY ISSUES

GENERALLY NOT SUITED AT HIGH POWER LEVELS AND HIGH RELIABILITY APPLICATIONS

FEW REALISTIC APPLICATIONS

REQUIRES DC / AC CONVERSION

DIFFICULT TO CONTROL

WHERE IS ALL THIS FUEL GOING TO COME FROM?

NO ECONOMY OF SCALE

ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES NOT WELL THOUGHT OUT

NEEDS MORE RESEARCH / BREAKTHROUGHS

LARGE SIZE

FUEL CELLS


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POTENTIAL HIGH EFFICIENCY interfaces with the 60 Hz load bus. In some designs, the DC bus may be integrated with a battery energy storage system for seamless transfer of the load.

SPECIAL APPLICATIONS FOR COGEN

MOBILE (AUTO) AND SPACE APPLICATIONS

A LOT OF PROPONENTS

RELIEVES TRANSMISSION CONGESTION

TRULY INDEPENDENT ENERGY SOURCE

VERY HIGH COST

POTENTIAL RELIABILITY PROBLEMS

NOT GENERALLY COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE

USES EXOTIC MATERIALS / CATALYSTS

HIGH TEMPERATURE / SAFETY ISSUES

GENERALLY NOT SUITED AT HIGH POWER LEVELS AND HIGH RELIABILITY APPLICATIONS

FEW REALISTIC APPLICATIONS

REQUIRES DC / AC CONVERSION

DIFFICULT TO CONTROL

WHERE IS ALL THIS FUEL GOING TO COME FROM?

NO ECONOMY OF SCALE

ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES NOT WELL THOUGHT OUT

NEEDS MORE RESEARCH / BREAKTHROUGHS

LARGE SIZE

FUEL CELLS


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PHOSPHORIC ACID 250 kVA FUEL CELL interfaces with the 60 Hz load bus. In some designs, the DC bus may be integrated with a battery energy storage system for seamless transfer of the load.

PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL - 7.5 kVA


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MICROTURBINES interfaces with the 60 Hz load bus. In some designs, the DC bus may be integrated with a battery energy storage system for seamless transfer of the load.

  • Low capacity, high speed units with electronic interface with 60 Hz bus

  • Alternative fuel sources (e.g., biogas, gasifier, pyrolysis, fuels that have less than 10% of heat content compared to fossil fuels)

  • Catalytic combustor to reduce nitrous oxide production

  • Heat recovery

  • Lower capacities -- e.g.,

    5 - 300 kVA

  • High efficiency small units


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MICROTURBINES interfaces with the 60 Hz load bus. In some designs, the DC bus may be integrated with a battery energy storage system for seamless transfer of the load.

Proposed application areas

  • Electric vehicles

  • Capacity addition

  • Stand alone power supplies

  • Cogeneration / resource recovery

  • Peak shaving

  • High reliability applications, independent fuel source


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The main grand challenges of achieving interfaces with the 60 Hz load bus. In some designs, the DC bus may be integrated with a battery energy storage system for seamless transfer of the load.N nines reliability using DERs are:

  • Development of strategies for adding DERs

  • Development of analytical procedures for systems of multiple local controls, and the coordination of those controls

  • The complete analysis of normal and abnormal operating modes of DERs

  • The resolution of safety issues relating to energization of distribution buses at the load end

  • The rethinking of protective relaying issues for systems with multiple DERs

  • The advancement of agent technologies for systems reliability enhancement, and the resolution of issues of power electronic controller compatibility

  • Analysis of dependence of fuel sources


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ELECTRONIC SOLUTIONS FOR POWER CONDITIONING interfaces with the 60 Hz load bus. In some designs, the DC bus may be integrated with a battery energy storage system for seamless transfer of the load.

Related to high reliability requirements because momentary events can degrade overall customer load performance. Electronic solutions, while expensive, can drastically reduce the number of momentary events; however the electronic devices have reliability concerns of their own.


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Inject series voltage for phase control / exchange energy between phases

ELECTRONIC SOLUTIONS FOR POWER CONDITIONING

Shunt positioning in system to inject current

Back - to - back rectifier / DC link / inverter


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AC - AC CONVERTER TECHNOLOGIES between phases

RECTIFIER

DC link

PWM INVERTER

THE UNIFIED POWER FLOW CONTROLLER UTILIZES IGBT TECHNOLOGY TO GENERATE PWM SIGNALS OF CONTROLLABLE MAGNITUDE / PHASE. THIS EFFECTIVELY CONTROLS THE ACTIVE POWER FLOW WHEN INJECTED AS A SERIES VOLTAGE


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1/4 cycle response time between phases

Very low DC link power

Can be protected by crowbaring supply

Individual phase control / exchange energy between phases

Controls slow variations in supply voltage

The distribution version (DVR) can improve supply power factor and power quality

For the distribution version, potential elimination of vulnerable load problems

For UPFC, can reduce transmission congestion as well as improve dynamic response

Cost is high

Local solution (?)

Controls are tricky, coordination of controls

Solution of diversity of ownership problems

Relatively low power injected

Limited experience in applications

Reliability issues

THE UPFC


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ALLOWS CONTROL OF POWER FLOW between phases

CONDITIONS POWER

CONTROLS CAN BE COORDINATED TO ENHANCE DYNAMIC STABILITY

CAN SELL TRANSMISSION CAPACITY

REACTIVE POWER SUPPORT

CAN REPLACE SPECIAL PROTECTION SCHEMES WITHOUT THE NEED OF GENERATOR RESYNCHRONIZATION

COST

LITTLE EXPERIENCE IN ACTUAL USE

RELIABILITY ISSUES

PQ IMPLICATIONS

THE UPFC FACTS DEVICEas a transmission element


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THE UPFC and DVR between phases

POWER FLOW

SERIES XFORMER

SUPPLY

LOAD

AC/AC PWM CONVERTER


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THE UPFC and DVR between phases

LOAD VOLTAGE

SERIES VOLTAGE

SUPPLY VOLTAGE

LOAD CURRENT


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SUMMARY between phases

THE GRAND CHALLENGES


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  • Modeling and controlling energy source dependence between phases

  • Resolving reliability and control issues for DERs

  • Evolution of power electronic topologies for high reliability applications

  • Control of the cost / benefit ratio for alternative high reliability designs

  • Agent design for DERs and agent communications issues

  • Study of typical global system response due to local controls

  • ‘Adding another 9’