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Do you think grizzly bears should be reintroduced in the Selway Bitterroot Ecosystem in the State of Idaho?

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Do you think grizzly bears should be reintroduced in the Selway Bitterroot Ecosystem in the State of Idaho?. _______Agree _______Disagree. Key Concepts. Attitudes Classical, Operant, Observational Elaboration Likelihood Model. Attitudes. What is an attitude?

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slide1

Do you think grizzly bears should be reintroduced in the Selway Bitterroot Ecosystem in the State of Idaho?

_______Agree

_______Disagree

key concepts
Key Concepts
  • Attitudes
  • Classical, Operant, Observational
  • Elaboration Likelihood Model
slide3

Attitudes

  • What is an attitude?
  • Why do we care about attitudes?
  • How are they formed?
  • How do we measure attitudes?
  • Do attitudes predict behavior?
  • Can attitudes be changed?
attitudes

Attitudes

How a person responds to the world; favorable or unfavorable manner (+, -). A persons general predisposition to evaluate other people, objects, and issues favorable or unfavorably.

A person’s attitude influences the way in which he or she responds to the world.

They influence:

Attention-how we notice things

Behavior-persons actions because of attitude

Contain an evaluative component:

Positive or negative

Intensity

environmental attitude
Environmental Attitude
  • A learned predisposition to respond in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to the environment.
attitudes6

Attitudes

Wolves do not belong in Idaho, they are bad!!

Small, frequent and low intensity fires are good for ecosystem health!!

I think global warming is the most serious environmental problem in the world today!!

why do we care
Why Do We Care?
  • Understanding and measuring attitudes is important when dealing with environmental conflicts.
  • Help us develop education programs in an attempt to involve the public in decision making.
  • Influence perceptions and behavior toward issues.
changing attitudes

Changing Attitudes?

Question:

Do you think natural resource managers at a federal level are trying to change the public’s attitudes about management strategies for our public lands?

Examples: Ecosystem Management, Prescribed Fire, Endangered Species Recovery, Forest Health Initiative

attitudes10

Attitudes

How are attitudes formed?

Classical-Child overhears continued responses begins to associate subject with negative or positive responses

Operant-Child is reinforced by authority figure

Observational-Watching the behavior of someone or something else

attitudes11

Attitudes

How measure?

Should grizzly bears be re-introduced in Idaho?

Yes_______ No_________

Likert Scale

____Strongly Agree

____Agree

____Undecided

____Disagree

____Strongly Disagree

Indirect Methods--Observe Behavior

what leads to strong attitudes
What Leads to Strong Attitudes?
  • Group polarization (groups enforce them)
  • Elaboration (think about it a lot)
  • Side bets (invested resources: house, car)
what do strong attitudes do
What do strong attitudes do?
  • Resist change
  • Bias information processing
  • Durable and have impact
when are attitudes likely to change
When are Attitudes LIKELY to Change?

When people have weak attitudes or non-attitudes

Low experience or low knowledge of a topic or fact

Attitudes are “Beliefs +Evaluation”, so changing beliefs may change attitudes.

elaboration likelihood model
Elaboration Likelihood Model
  • More we think about, process, or “elaborate on” a message, the more important are its claims.
  • Less we elaborate on it, the more important are factors such as source credibility, creating feelings, eye-catching color, etc.
  • Two cognitive “routes” to persuasion: central route, and peripheral route.
central route of elm
Central Route of ELM
  • Audience is motivated and capable of processing arguments of a message.
  • Considered, thoughtful weighing of arguments; in favor of it or counter to it.
  • The greater the ratio of favorable arguments to counter-arguments, the stronger the message is.
  • In these circumstances, you should:
    • use clear, reasoned, logical arguments
    • explain reasons for desired changes
peripheral route of elm
Peripheral Route of ELM
  • Low attention to message content
  • Reliance on heuristics
  • In these circumstances, you should
    • catch attention
    • create favorable thoughts
    • keep message short and sweet
    • have constant reminders
what factors interfere with attitude behavior consistency
What factors “interfere” with attitude-behavior consistency?
  • Individual
    • psychological states
    • evaluations of merits of behavior change
    • knowledge
    • vested interest
what factors interfere with attitude behavior consistency22
What factors “interfere” with attitude-behavior consistency?
  • Situational
    • lack of ability/opportunity to act
    • timing of message
    • significant others
    • specificity
so to know if persuasion will work you need to know about
So, to know if persuasion will work, you need to know about...
  • Individual characteristics
    • motivations for acting - level of vested interest
    • psychological states - knowledge
  • Situational characteristics
    • timing - ability/opportunity to act
    • social group issues - distractions
  • Message characteristics
    • quality of arguments
    • peripheral cues
so what are we in the midst of a scientific revolution in how we view and manage natural resources

So What?Are we in the midst of a scientific revolution in how we view and manage natural resources?

Competing Paradigms

Wise Use Movement

Deep Ecology

?

Ecosystem Management

Multiple Use