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Student Affairs Learning Community

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    1. Student Affairs Learning Community Women in Higher Education

    3. Student Affairs Learning Community 2005-2006 Expected Outcomes Build relationships among members Perform literature review on topic area Create summary report of findings

    4. Theme: Women in Higher Education Theme selected under advisement of Vice President (Women in Higher Education) RIT Realities 31% of enrolled students in Fall 2005 were women (this varies greatly by college). Current graduation rate for women is 65% compared to men at 53% (this varies by college). Incoming women report having lower overall confidence in academic ability, computer and math skills, emotional/physical health, and intellectual self-confidence, as compared to their male peers.

    5. SALC Process Initial Meeting and Readings: Women’s Way of Knowing (excerpt) 1 Perry’s Intellectual Scheme (excerpt) 2 A Nudge is Best (excerpt) 3 Synthesis, Assessment and Application (excerpt) 4 Individual Topic Assignments: Center survey of current services and program Investigation of a core area related to women in higher education Meeting with Mary-Beth and Kit Mayberry about the state of women’s issues at RIT.

    6. SA Centers @ RIT What services does your Center provide to women? Are there any gaps in services to female students that your Center has identified as areas of concern? What are your Center’s perceptions of women at RIT? Is someone in your Center assigned to assess women’s issues? Do you have any written information that addresses specific concerns of women? What’s the ratio of male/female staffing in your Center?  What’s the female/male ratio of student users of your Center’s services? Are there future initiatives for women that your Center hopes to implement?  If so, what are they?   Are there any perceived barriers to implementation?    

    7. SA Centers @ RIT Observations Wide variance of services for women (some centers provide dedicated services while others intentionally do not target by gender). Overall sense of responsiveness to needs of women when they arise, but there could be more coordination across areas. There could be a more intentional, focused approach from the division. Some programs designed primarily for women are poorly attended. Need to balance women only vs. mixed population events inclusive of women.

    8. Core Research Areas Women’s relationship to: Leadership Higher Education Development STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) Involvement/Engagement Athletics Greek Life International

    9. Leadership: College Female Presidents 1986 9.5% Female 8.1% Minority 76% Doctorate Degree Average Age 52 2001 21% Female 12% Minority 76% Doctorate Degree Average Age 57

    10. Leadership: Nation Wide In 1998 only 460 female presidents out of 2,380 presidents total. Average female college president salary averages at $200,000. Average male college president salary averages at $300,000.

    11. Women in Higher Education TRENDS IN GENDER EQUITY OF GIRLS AND WOMEN Increase in negative attitude of 12th graders toward school, particularly among females. 2002 – higher proportion of males taking AP exams in science and calculus, and receiving higher scores. 2001 – females more likely than males to persist and attain Bachelor degrees (66%/59%). Females as likely as males to use computers at home and at school.

    12. Women in Higher Education MINORITIES 2000 Black women earned 2x as many bachelor’s degrees as black men. Less than 50% graduate from college within 6 years because of tuition cost increases, social adjustment issues, lack of academic preparation in high school. Persistence Factors - family influences, financial motivation, mathematics and science proficiency, academic advising, quality of instruction, availability of faculty. Manhattan Institute Report – 2/3 of students are academically unprepared for college.

    13. Components of Women’s Development

    14. Women’s Development Core theory on women’s development is well-developed. To fully understand women students’ development, we must include all factors that contribute to student development. Nationally, there appears to be a strong trend towards women’s professional and leadership development programs.

    15. Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM)

    16. Factors that Influence Retention of Women in STEM programs “Weed-out” system is a long established practice in STEM programs and has a more significant impact on women. 1 Traditional college models are competitively based and less nurturing. Women are less prepared for and/or comfortable than men with a competitive model and benefit from praise and support. 2 Factors for success: Role Models and Mentoring (especially peers). Enrollment in Advanced Placement courses in high school. Strong teacher preparation and training pre-college. Participation in pre-college workshops and camps.

    17. STEM WOMEN IN ENGINEERING Why do many women drop out of engineering majors? Not lack of academic ability – 2/3 of women who left had engineering grade averages of A or B in a previous year; discouraged by grades even if doing well. Discouraging academic climate, faculty and peers; isolation; lack of programming experience. What are characteristics of women who stay in engineering majors? Persistence Factors - Self-confidence, Community building, Networking. Active use of support resources and college activities.

    18. WOMEN IN COMPUTER SCIENCE Experiences and perspectives of women are, in part, shaped by their minority and, sometimes, token status rather than by gender. Gender divide in how men and women relate to computing largely due to cultural and environmental conditions, little to do with gender, misconception of what CS is and who computer scientists are, misperceptions of the field. Success of CMU women @School of Computer Science – action oriented organization, leadership roles for women, opportunities to discuss homework with roommates late at night and at meals, public speaking and community workshop opportunities. STEM

    19. Involvement/Engagement of Women Student-student interactions have a positive correlation to satisfaction with student life and leadership development. Out of class contact with faculty has a positive correlation to academic success. Women are more comfortable in environments where there is a sizable female population. Membership in a sorority does not have any significant effects on student satisfaction outcomes.

    20. Women In Greek Life Nationally, membership in College Pan-Hellenic Groups: 3,777,160 initiated collegiate or alumnae members 79,000 new members in 2005-06 2900 undergraduate chapters 600+ college campuses hosting CPC groups in North America (US and Canada) 4,600 Alumnae Associations

    21. Women In Greek Life Membership nationally in Greek-letter organizations falling: 34% decline in past 10 years. Research: competing interests, cost, reputation/ “bad press”, technology as basis for decline. Very little research regarding proven benefits of sorority life for undergrads, except for basic need for “belonging.”

    22. Women In Greek Life at RIT Fall 2005 Scholarship Report: All-Sorority GPA: 3.016 All-Fraternity GPA: 2.633 All-RIT GPA: 3.1 All Greek Philanthropy Report 401 programs (sponsored, co-sponsored, or attended) 5,366 hours of community service completed $11,249.20 donated to various philanthropic endeavors

    23. Women in Athletics National issues regarding Women in Athletics: Title IX and equity 525 athletes at RIT 50/50 male-female NCAA Committee on Women’s Athletics Senior Women Administrator Role Coaches “National Crisis” Balance of work, family

    24. International Women International Students tend to be the last to seek help (Men and Women). 1 The difference in the culture is a large challenge, but the difference in the classroom culture is an even bigger challenge (Men and Women).2 Gap in the literature related specifically to international women. International Women comprise approximately 3% of the student population at RIT and approximately 4% nationally. 3

    25. Considerations for the future What do women experience at RIT? RIT may benefit from further analysis of existing survey data by gender. Compare outcomes and develop recommendations. Who will do this? Task Force? Committee? Next SALC? How are women growing and changing while enrolled at RIT? How does/can RIT support women’s development at RIT? How can these be measured? What services are being offered specifically to women University-wide? A services survey could reveal gaps or duplication in service. Who will do this? Within/beyond SA? Task Force? Committee? Next SALC?

    26. What’s Going on Outside of RIT? For students: For professionals: NASPA’s Center for Scholarship, Research and Professional Development for Women has proposed an on-line journal called the Journal of Women in Higher Education (JWHE). The projected 1st issue date is Feb-March 2007.

    27. Theories Related to Women’s Development Cognitive-Structural Development Piaget - Intellectual Development Kohlberg - Moral Reasoning Gilligan - Theory of Women's Moral Development Baxter Magolda - Epistemological Reflection Model Perry - Intellectual and Ethical Development Belenky, Clinchy, Goldberger and Tarule - Women's Ways of Knowing King and Kitchner -  Reflective Judgment Model

    28. Theories Related to Women’s Development Psychosocial & Identity Development Chickering - Identity Development Schlossberg - Transition Theory Cass - Model of Sexual Identity Formation D’Augelli - Sexual Identity Josselson - Women's Identity Development Helms - Racial Identity Cross - African-American Identity Atkinson, Morton & Sue - Minority Identity Development

    29. Theories Related to Women’s Development Typology & Environment Kolb - Theory of Experiential Learning Gardner - Multiple Intelligences Holland - Vocational personalities and environments Myers-Briggs - Personality Types Astin - Involvement Theory Tinto - Theory of Student Departure