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REC 375: Leadership and Management of Parks and Recreation Services Jim Herstine, Ph.D., CPRP, CPSI Assistant Professor Parks and Recreation Management UNC-Wilmington Management and the Management Process REC 375—Leadership and Management of Parks and Recreation Services

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rec 375 leadership and management of parks and recreation services

REC 375: Leadership and Management of Parks and Recreation Services

Jim Herstine, Ph.D., CPRP, CPSI

Assistant Professor

Parks and Recreation Management


management and the management process

Management and the Management Process

REC 375—Leadership and Management of Parks and Recreation Services

why is it important to learn and understand leisure service management principles and practices
Why is it important to learn and understand leisure service management principles and practices?
  • To get the most out of our time and performance
  • To get the most out of our employees
  • To have our organization run effectively and efficiently
  • To compensate for any reduction in tax support, investments and consumer spending
Why is it important to learn and understand leisure service management principles and practices?, continued
  • To increase our ability to compete for the remaining tax dollars, investment dollars and consumer dollars
  • To obtain our personal and organizational goals and objectives
what do we mean by a leisure service organization
What do we mean by a “Leisure Service Organization?”
  • Public Organization
  • Private/Membership Organization
  • Private/Non-Profit Organization
  • Commercial/Entrepreneurial

Goals of Leisure Service Organizations will vary accordingly to meet the needs, desires and expectations of the organization’s constituents and customers

types of leisure service organizations
Types of Leisure Service Organizations
  • Service Organizations—Scouts, YMCA, YWCA
  • Economic Organizations—Spas, Resorts, Health Clubs, Bowling Centers
  • Religious Organizations—Church Camps, Church Recreation
  • Governmental Organizations—Local, State and Federal Parks
  • Social Organizations—Country Clubs, Tennis Associations
small group exercise
Small Group Exercise
  • Define “Management”
  • Define “Administration”
  • What is the primary purpose/duty of a manager?
  • What is it that successful managers do?
  • What roles do managers play?
defining management
Defining Management
  • Working with and through individuals, groups, and other resources to accomplish organizational goals and objectives
defining management continued
Defining Management, continued
  • A process of planning, organizing, directing and controlling organizational behaviors to accomplish a mission through division of labor and utilization of resources
successful managers are able to
Successful Managers Are Able To:
  • Provide direction
  • Make and implement decisions
  • Identify trends
  • Recognize problems
  • Utilize opportunities
  • Manage and Resolve conflict
  • Audit poor performance
  • Reward excellent performance
  • Lead the organization to its goals
managerial functions
Managerial Functions
  • The essence of management and managerial work is to make decisions and see that they are carried out!!!!
available resources
Available Resources
  • Human Resources
  • Financial Resources
  • Physical Resources
  • Informational Resources
available resources continued
Available Resources, continued
  • A manager must use human resources in the best interest of the organization, without creating dissatisfied employees and customers. The achievement of this dual goal is difficult to obtain—why?
    • Different skills and abilities
    • Different physical characteristics
    • Different interests and aptitudes
    • Different levels of aspiration and motivation
In accomplishing his/her duties, a manager performs four (4) basic tasks—makes 4 types of decisions about the organizational resources
types of decisions
Types of Decisions
  • Planning Decisions
  • Organizing Decisions
  • Directing Decisions
  • Controlling Decisions
planning defined
Planning Defined
  • A systematic process of reaching a desired state by establishing goals and formulating strategies to achieve them
    • Operational Planning
    • Strategic Planning
planning decisions
Planning Decisions
  • Anticipates the future, sets goals and objectives and identifies the actions necessary for the organization to attain these goals and objectives
  • Determining where you want to go and how and when you’re going to get there
  • It involves specifying a target, a path or route to be followed and a time schedule for achieving that target
planning decisions continued
Planning Decisions, continued

Effective managers set clear-cut plans, realistic time schedules and allow for contingencies

organizing defined
Organizing Defined
  • The process of structuring and coordinating an organization’s resources to carry out the strategies formulated in the planning phase effectively and efficiently
  • Stated simply, determining what needs to be done and who is to do it
organizing decisions
Organizing Decisions
  • Develops a structure of interrelated tasks and allocates resources within this structure which leads to the achievement of the organization’s goals and objectives
organizing decisions continued
Organizing Decisions, continued
  • Organizing decisions involve two types
    • Decisions made to set up the structure and design of the organization (Formal Organizational Chart)
    • Decisions made to assign resources
organizing decisions continued23
Organizing Decisions, continued
  • Organizing decisions affecting structure and design include:
    • Determining the number and type of departments
    • Determining the number and type of management levels
    • The issue of accountability
    • The issue of scope of responsibility
organizing decisions continued24
Organizing Decisions, continued
  • Organizing decisions affecting the assignment of resources include:
    • Job Descriptions
    • Budgets
organizing decisions continued25
Organizing Decisions, continued
directing defined
Directing Defined
  • The process of directing and motivating all involved parties to help achieve the organization’s goals effectively and efficiently
directing decisions
Directing Decisions
  • Provide encouragement and guidance of employee’s efforts toward attaining the organizational goals and objectives
  • Can also be called “staffing decisions” or “motivating decisions” or “leading decisions”
  • Involve personnel issues or human resource issues
directing decisions continued
Directing Decisions, continued
  • Directing/Staffing/Motivating/Leading decisions include:
    • Recruiting
    • Selecting
    • Hiring
    • Wages and Salaries
    • Training and Development
    • Health and Retirement Benefits
directing decisions continued29
Directing Decisions, continued
controlling defined
Controlling Defined
  • The process of monitoring activities to ensure they are being accomplished as planned and of correcting any significant deviations
controlling decisions
Controlling Decisions
  • Evaluates the performance of an organization and its units to see whether the organization is progressing in the desired direction, and taking corrective action when and where necessary
  • Making sure what you want to happen does indeed happen!
controlling decisions continued
Controlling Decisions, continued
  • Effective managers control without being oppressive
  • Effective managers instill a spirit of self-control in subordinates so that the burden of preying managerial eyes does not rest heavily on the shoulders of the subordinates
controlling decisions continued33
Controlling Decisions, continued
  • The better the planning, organizing and directing, the better will be controlling!
controlling decisions continued34
Controlling Decisions, continued
  • Ineffective managers obtain short-term compliance through control at the expense of long-term commitment, which can only be obtained by planning, organizing and directing!!!!!
controlling decisions continued35
Controlling Decisions, continued
managerial skills mix
Managerial Skills Mix
  • Human Skills
  • Conceptual Skills
  • Technical Skills

It is generally agreed that there are three primary areas of skills, knowledge and ability that a manager must process in order to successfully carry out the process of management

human skills
Human Skills
  • Ability and judgment in working with and through people, including an understanding of motivation and an application of effective leadership, in order to achieve the organizational goals and objectives
conceptual skills
Conceptual Skills
  • Ability to understand the complexities of the overall organization and where one’s own operation fits into the organization
  • Involves an understanding as to the manner in which each of the organization’s components fit together, in order to meet its goals and objectives
conceptual skills continued
Conceptual Skills, continued
  • Permits the manager to act according to the objectives of the total organization rather than only on the basis of the goals and objectives of one’s own immediate group
  • Further implies that the manager has an understanding of how his organization is affected by and relates to broader environmental factors
technical skills
Technical Skills
  • Ability to use knowledge, methods, techniques and equipment necessary for the performance of specific tasks acquired from experience, education and training
managerial skills mix continued
Managerial Skills Mix, continued
  • According to a report by the American Management Association, the most important single skill of an executive is his or her ability to get along with people
quote from john d rockefeller
Quote From John D. Rockefeller
  • “I will pay more for the ability to deal with people than any other ability under the sun”!!!!!
management is
Management Is:
    • Decision-Making
    • Influence
    • Human
    • Conceptual
    • Technical
management is continued
Management Is:, continued
    • Human
    • Financial
    • Physical
    • Informational
    • Planning
    • Organizing
    • Directing
    • Controlling
the management process
The Management Process


Resources Decision-making Goals

Human Planning Profits

Financial Organizing Efficiency

Physical Directing Satisfied Clients

Informational Controlling Products/Service

management and the management process49

Management and the Management Process

Jim Herstine, Ph.D., CPRP, CPSI