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Re-emergence of bed bugs in the U.S. Abelardo C. Moncayo, Ph.D. Vector-Borne Disease Section Tennessee Department of Health. Historical perspective. Bed bugs have plagued humans for thousands of years Origin of relationship remains unclear Originally a problem for the wealthy

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re emergence of bed bugs in the u s

Re-emergence of bed bugsin the U.S.

Abelardo C. Moncayo, Ph.D.

Vector-Borne Disease Section

Tennessee Department of Health

historical perspective
Historical perspective
  • Bed bugs have plagued humans for thousands of years
    • Origin of relationship remains unclear
    • Originally a problem for the wealthy
    • Enhanced by fire and heated homes
    • Present in literature as far back as 400 B.C.E.
decline of bed bugs
Decline of bed bugs
  • Three major factors:
    • DDT use in 1950s
    • Improved vacuum cleaners
    • Changes in home construction
current status
Current status
  • targeted pest treatments + bans, frequent travel have led to a bed bug resurgence in the U.S.
  • 300% increase in cases from 2000 to 2001
  • 70% increase in cases in 2002 and 2003
  • Orkin had a 20% increase in bed bug calls in 2004
  • Reports of bed bugs in 43 states last year
  • Chemical companies are reluctant to enter the bed bug market because of failure to control
  • Difficult to detect, to treat, and often to identify
family cimicidae the bed bugs
Family Cimicidae : The bed bugs
  • About 91 species in 22 genera
    • 12 genera only parasitize bats
    • 9 genera only parasitize birds
    • 3 species parasitize humans
      • Cimex lectularius (worldwide)
      • Cimex hemipterus (tropics)
      • Leptocimex boueti (West Africa)
    • Other species of concern (may bite people)
      • Bat bug (Cimex adjunctus)
      • Swallow bug (Oeciacus vicarius)
      • Chimney Swift Bug (Cimexopsis nyctalis)
  • Question of origin
    • Humans in caves
    • Bats in homes
slide7

Cimex lectularius

Bed Bug

Cimex adjunctus

Bat Bug

Cimexopsis nyctalis

Chimney Swift Bug

1 possible species

Oeciacus vicarius

Swallow Bug

In Tennessee ??

Most likely 3 species

identification
Identification
  • Adults 1/4 to 3/8” long
  • Brown to reddish brown
  • Oval shaped
  • Flattened
  • Beak-like mouthparts
  • Small, stubby, nonfunctional wing pads
  • “Obnoxiously sweet” odor

BED BUG

habits
Habits
  • External parasites that feed on blood
  • Humans are the preferred host !
    • However - also feed on birds, rodents, bats, pets
  • Feed during the night with peak activity occurring just before dawn
  • Seek refuge during daylight in dark, protected areas
  • Prefer dry fabric, wood, and paper surfaces
  • Fast-moving
injury
Injury
  • Painless bite
  • Reaction to the injected saliva (individual variability)
    • Swelling
    • Rows of welts
    • Severe itching (hours to days)
  • No conclusive evidence of disease transmission
    • Hepatitis B
    • Chagas’ Disease
  • Anxiety
life cycle
Life Cycle

Egg

  • Female can lay 1-12 eggs per day
  • Deposited on rough surfaces or in cracks and crevices
  • Hatch in 6-17 days
life cycle14
Life Cycle

Nymph

  • 5 instars
  • Require a blood meal to molt
life cycle15
Life Cycle

Adult

  • May live for 12-18 months
  • Total developmental time takes 21 days @ 86F and 120 days @ 65F
  • Nymphs and adults can survive for more than a year without Food !!
prevention
Prevention
  • Don’t bring infested items into the home
    • Inspect clothing and baggage of travelers
    • Inspect secondhand beds, bedding, and furniture
  • Exclude alternative hosts (birds, bats, rodents, etc.)
  • Caulk cracks & crevices in building’s exterior
  • Repair or screen openings
integrated pest management ipm
Integrated Pest Management(IPM)
  • Correctly identify the pest
  • Thoroughly inspect the premises to locate harborage sites
  • Encourage sanitary conditions
  • Apply insecticides to targeted sites
inspection tips recognize common signs
Inspection tips:recognize common signs
  • Blood stains from crushed bugs
  • Fecal spots
  • Shed skins & eggshells
  • Offensive, sweet, musty odor
inspection tips common harborage sites
Inspection tips:common harborage sites
  • Cracks and crevices
    • Mattress, box springs, bed frame
    • Window and door frames
    • Baseboards
    • Carpet tack boards
    • Electrical boxes
    • Wall hangings
    • Drapery pleats
    • Loosened wallpaper
    • Ceiling moldings
sanitation
Sanitation
  • Vacuum mattress and premises
      • ** (dispose of vacuum bag) ** ??
  • Scrub mattress seams
  • Dry clean or launder bedding and clothing in hot water - Dry on high heat.
  • Repair plaster cracks
  • Glue loosened wallpaper
  • Remove wild animal roosts and nests
chemical control
Chemical control
  • Hundreds of products ‘registered’ for use on bed bugs in US
  • Formulations
    • 196 pressurized liquids
    • 90 ready-to-use solutions
    • 53 emulsifiable concentrates
    • 47 dusts
  • Chemicals
    • 196 Permethrin
    • 140 Pyrethrins
    • 12 variations of ‘-thrins’
insecticides
Insecticides
  • Residual insecticides
  • Spot treat harborage sites
  • Dust formulations useful for wall voids and attics
  • Use only an appropriately labeled insecticide on mattresses
  • No insecticides are labeled for use on bedding or linens
misconceptions
Misconceptions
  • Foreigners
  • Poor
  • Homeless
  • Reports
  • Type O blood, etc…