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Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques. There are a number of techniques which are used to diagnose prenatal defects in fetuses whose mothers are at risk of having a baby with an abnormality.

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pre natal diagnostic techniques
Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques
  • There are a number of techniques which are used to diagnose prenatal defects in fetuses whose mothers are at risk of having a baby with an abnormality.
  • This may be a question of a family history of an anomaly, or that the parents have already had one child with a defect.
  • Prenatal testing may be performed on the grounds of the age of the mother.
  • Common techniques are:
    • Alpha Feta Protein
    • Amniocentesis
    • Chorionic villus sampling
    • Ultrasound scanning
birthing factors
Birthing Factors
  • Toxemia or preeclampsia
  • Bleeding during pregnancy
  • Placent displasia
  • Prolonged birth
  • Breech births
  • Cesarean section (25% of all births)
  • Anoxia at birth is biggest risk


The degree to which a developing

structure or behavior is susceptible to

Experience (i.e., nurture)

Can the environment RETARD motor development?

Can motor development be SPEEDED?

Can motor development be influenced by a baby’s culture?


Physical Development



Head to tail



Near and far

Principle of



Principle of



gross motor skills fine motor skills
Gross Motor Skills: Fine Motor Skills

Month One:

Can lift chin slightly Hands fisted/reflexive grasp

Month Two:

Wobbly head while sitting Swipes toys with /hands

Month Three:

Holds head steady in sitting Hands open

Rolls back to side Grasps/holds an object

Puts weight on arms while on tummy Hands play at midline

Month Four:

Sits on propped arms Reaches with both arms/hands

Rolls tummy to side Brings fingers/hands in mouth

No head lag seen when pulled to sit Squeeze grasp emerging

Month Five:

Rolls tummy to back Reaches with good aim

Wiggles few feet forward Puts objects/toys in mouth

Pushes up with arms while on belly Picks up spoon or cup by handle

Sits propped on hands Starts grabbing feet

Month Six:

Sits briefly independently Reaches precisely and grasps objects

Sits in a highchair Transfers toys from hand to hand

Rolls over both ways Bangs a cup on a table

gross motor skills fine motor skills13
Gross Motor Skills: Fine Motor Skills

Month Seven:

Sits unsupported~30 seconds Crosses midline when reaching

Rocks on all fours Uses whole hand to rake in objects

Pivots in a circle while on tummy Thumb to finger grasp emerging

Month Eight:

Transitions tummy to sit Bangs cubes together

Crawls forward Uses a three-fingered grasp

Reaches while on tummy

Month Nine:

Transitions sit to tummy Uses thumb to index finger grasp (crude)

Pulls to stand while holding on Crude release of objects

Creeps on all fours Drops toys and objects

Stands while leaning on furniture Points index finger

Month Ten:

Cruises along furniture Pokes with fingers

Stands unsupported briefly Uses thumb to index finger grasp (precise)

Transfers from crawl to sit Stacks objects

Month Eleven:

Stands unsupported Releases a cube at will

Walks with hands held Removes pegs from a pegboard

Month Twelve:

First independent steps Puts objects in a container

Stands unsupported~12 seconds Releases an object precisely

Assumes/maintains kneeling Stacks two one-inch cubes


Age Large Motor Skills Small Motor Skills

2 - 3 years

Walks more rhythmically; hurried walk changes to run. Put on and removes simple items of clothing.

Jumps, hops, throws, and catches with rigid upper body. Zips and unzips larger zippers.

Pushes riding toy with feet; little steering. Uses spoon effectively


3 - 4 years

Walks up stairs, alternating feet, and downstairs, leading with one foot. Fastens and unfastens large buttons.

Jumps and hops, flexing upper body. Serves self food without assistance.

Throws and catches with slight involvement of upper body; still catches by trapping ball against chest. Uses scissors.

Pedals and steers tricycle. Copies vertical line and circle.

Draws first picture of person, using tadpole image.


4 - 5 years

Walks downstairs, alternating feet. Uses fork effectively.

Runs more smoothly. Cuts with scissors following line

Gallops and skips with one foot. Copies triangles, cross, and some letters.

Throws ball with increased body rotation and transfer of weight on feet; catches ball with hands.

Rides tricycle rapidly, steers smoothly.


5 - 6 years

Increases running speed. Uses knife to cut soft food.

Gallops more smoothly; engages in true skipping. Ties shoes.

Displays mature throwing and catching pattern. Draws person with six parts.

Rides bicycle with training wheels. Copies some numbers and simple words.