Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques. There are a number of techniques which are used to diagnose prenatal defects in fetuses whose mothers are at risk of having a baby with an abnormality.
The degree to which a developing
structure or behavior is susceptible to
Experience (i.e., nurture)
Can the environment RETARD motor development?
Can motor development be SPEEDED?
Can motor development be influenced by a baby’s culture?
Head to tail
Near and far
Can lift chin slightly Hands fisted/reflexive grasp
Wobbly head while sitting Swipes toys with /hands
Holds head steady in sitting Hands open
Rolls back to side Grasps/holds an object
Puts weight on arms while on tummy Hands play at midline
Sits on propped arms Reaches with both arms/hands
Rolls tummy to side Brings fingers/hands in mouth
No head lag seen when pulled to sit Squeeze grasp emerging
Rolls tummy to back Reaches with good aim
Wiggles few feet forward Puts objects/toys in mouth
Pushes up with arms while on belly Picks up spoon or cup by handle
Sits propped on hands Starts grabbing feet
Sits briefly independently Reaches precisely and grasps objects
Sits in a highchair Transfers toys from hand to hand
Rolls over both ways Bangs a cup on a table
Sits unsupported~30 seconds Crosses midline when reaching
Rocks on all fours Uses whole hand to rake in objects
Pivots in a circle while on tummy Thumb to finger grasp emerging
Transitions tummy to sit Bangs cubes together
Crawls forward Uses a three-fingered grasp
Reaches while on tummy
Transitions sit to tummy Uses thumb to index finger grasp (crude)
Pulls to stand while holding on Crude release of objects
Creeps on all fours Drops toys and objects
Stands while leaning on furniture Points index finger
Cruises along furniture Pokes with fingers
Stands unsupported briefly Uses thumb to index finger grasp (precise)
Transfers from crawl to sit Stacks objects
Stands unsupported Releases a cube at will
Walks with hands held Removes pegs from a pegboard
First independent steps Puts objects in a container
Stands unsupported~12 seconds Releases an object precisely
Assumes/maintains kneeling Stacks two one-inch cubes
2 - 3 years
Walks more rhythmically; hurried walk changes to run. Put on and removes simple items of clothing.
Jumps, hops, throws, and catches with rigid upper body. Zips and unzips larger zippers.
Pushes riding toy with feet; little steering. Uses spoon effectively
Walks up stairs, alternating feet, and downstairs, leading with one foot. Fastens and unfastens large buttons.
Jumps and hops, flexing upper body. Serves self food without assistance.
Throws and catches with slight involvement of upper body; still catches by trapping ball against chest. Uses scissors.
Pedals and steers tricycle. Copies vertical line and circle.
Draws first picture of person, using tadpole image.
Walks downstairs, alternating feet. Uses fork effectively.
Runs more smoothly. Cuts with scissors following line
Gallops and skips with one foot. Copies triangles, cross, and some letters.
Throws ball with increased body rotation and transfer of weight on feet; catches ball with hands.
Rides tricycle rapidly, steers smoothly.
Increases running speed. Uses knife to cut soft food.
Gallops more smoothly; engages in true skipping. Ties shoes.
Displays mature throwing and catching pattern. Draws person with six parts.
Rides bicycle with training wheels. Copies some numbers and simple words.