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Postmodern Theory. Modernism. The belief that all knowledge can be reduced to knowable segments or truths by using the scientific method. Postmodernism .

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  • The belief that all knowledge can be reduced to knowable segments or truths by using the scientific method.
  • The scientific method describes a way, through statistical means, of proving the null hypotheses. If the null hypotheses is not proved, does that mean the alternative hypotheses is proved? How can we know that other factors are not involved in human behavior?
constructionist george kelly 1955
Constructionist (George Kelly, 1955)
  • Individuals construct their own reality.


  • “A person’s processes are psychologically channelized by the ways in which he anticipates events.” (Kelly, 1955. Fundamental postulate)
constructionist george kelly 19551
Constructionist (George Kelly, 1955)
  • (1955) Construction Corollary: A person anticipates events by construing their replications.
  • By contruing, we mean “placing an interpretation” on an event.
constructionist george kelly 19552
Constructionist (George Kelly, 1955)
  • Individual Corollary: Persons differ from each other in their construction of events.
  • No two people can play precisely the same role in the same event, no matter how closely they are associated.
constructionist george kelly 19553
Constructionist (George Kelly, 1955)
  • Choice Corollary: a person chooses for himself that alternative in a dichotomized construct through which he anticipates the greater possibility for extension and definition of his system.
constructionist george kelly 19554
Constructionist (George Kelly, 1955)
  • On change
  • Experience Corollary: A person’s construction system varies as he successfully contrues the replication of events.
on a counseling relationship kelly 1955
On a counseling relationship Kelly (1955)
  • Sociality corollary: To the extent that one person contrues the construction processes of another, He may play a role in a social process involving the other person.
Individuals behave as scientists predicting events by advancing theories about them and then testing the theories, constructs are continually modified to enhance predictions .
  • Laddering Technique
  • A means of determining which constructs are most important to clients
  • Helps identify the relative importance of the constructs within their system of constructs
  • Starts with choosing three occupations and then developing constructs about them by asking questions about them
  • Counselor continues to focus on questions about constructs as he moves up the “ladder”
  • Helps to clarify own feelings