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    1. Philosophical Foundations of Agricultural and Extension Education

    3. Original Definition Love of Wisdom Definition was developed by Socrates

    4. Of What Value is the Study of Philosophy Provide clarification for what is or has been done by others Provides a framework for life and our action Can be useful in solving educational problems A good mental activity

    5. Three Major Areas of Philosophy Metaphysics - the nature of reality Axiology - the nature of values Epistemology - the nature of knowledge

    6. Metaphysics Concerned with theories of the nature of reality. Why does the earth exist? How did it come into being? Is mankind free? Is there a God? What is real?

    7. Metaphysics Common terms used in metaphysics are: theology creationism evolution spirit free will atheism Metaphysics is the area many people think of when they hear the term philosophy.

    8. Axiology concerned with theories of value Two major divisions of axiology ethics What is right and wrong? What is evil and good? aesthetics What is beautiful and ugly? Some common terms used that relate to axiology are pessimism, optimism, hedonism, egoism, and altruism.

    9. Epistemology Concerned with theories of the nature of knowledge Epistemological questions: How do people learn? What knowledge is of utmost value? What are the different types of knowledge? What are the educational goals of agricultural education and extension?

    10. Philosophical Schools of Thought Idealism Realism Pragmatism Existentialism Reconstructionism

    11. Idealism

    12. Idealism (Idea-ism) Idealist believe that ideas are the only true reality. The material world is characterized by change, instability, and uncertainty; some ideas are enduring

    13. Idealism We should be concerned primarily with the search for truth. Since truth is perfect and eternal, it cannot be found in the world of matter that is both imperfect and constantly changing.

    14. Methods of Idealism Study the classics for universal truths Mathematics (2+2=4 is an absolute truth) Dialectic (critical discussion) The dialectic looks at both sides of an issue Lecture is used to transmit known truths and to stimulate thinking.

    15. The Dialectic

    16. Leaders of Idealism Socrates (469-399 BC) Plato (427-347 BC) St. Augustine (350-4300 Descartes (1596-1650) Berkeley (1685-1753) Kant (1724-1804)

    17. Socrates Regarded as the father of philosophy Believed we learned through questioning (the Socratic method) Wrote nothing, what we know of his views were written by his followers, most notably Plato

    18. Plato A student of Socrates Known as the father of idealism Operated a school named the Academy

    19. Platos views toward education The state must take an active role in educational matters The curriculum must lead bright students from a concern with concrete data toward abstract thinking Students with little ability for abstraction should go into the military, business and industry.

    20. Plato Those who demonstrate proficiency in the dialectic would continue their education and become philosophers in positions of power to lead the state toward the highest good (the Philosopher-King) Believed both boys and girls should be educated and girls should be equals.

    21. Augustine (354-430) Born in North Africa (Roman citizen) Mother - Christian, Father - Pagan Attended Roman Primary School grammar and literature emphasized At 16 went to Carthage and studied: rhetoric, music, geometry, grammar, mathematics During his younger days He lied, he stole, he wenched.

    22. Augustine. . . Became a grammaticus in his native town Taught rhetoric in Carthage, Rome, Milan While in his 30s was converted to Christianity, took his holy orders and became a great evangelist and priest. Found great favor in the church and became a great religious leader.

    23. Augustine People do not create knowledge; God has already created it, but people can discover it through trying to find God.

    24. Augustines Beliefs Women were held in low regard (this view was incorporated into the church and held for a thousand years) Only a few people possessed the mental ability to quest for the truth. Therefore most people should rely on the church for knowledge.

    25. Augustines Beliefs Augustine used Greek writings but began to have doubts how people who did not know God could write anything which could be of value to Christians. In 401 the Church outlawed pagan writings such as Plato and Aristotle (even the church leaders were not allowed to read the ancient literature). This continued for 1000 years.

    26. Augustines Beliefs about Teaching Encouraged the use of summaries Believed teachers should teach through persuasion and by leading impeccable lives. Teachers should not expect to increase their worldly stores through teaching. The stick and fist were needed to keep students in line since people were wicked (because of Adam).

    27. The Church and Idealism Idealism has exerted a great amount of influence on Christianity. For centuries the Christian church was the creator and protector of schooling. Generations educated in these schools were indoctrinated with the idealist point of view (including early American education).

    28. Descartes (1596-1650) A renown mathematician Wrestled with the question of what was real and did he really exist (perhaps he was a dream). He finally concluded: I think, therefore I am Thinking and ideas are the ultimate truth.

    29. George Berkeley (1685-1753) Existence is dependent upon some mind to know it, and if there are no minds, nothing would exist unless it is perceived in the mind of God.

    30. Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) the greatest and most difficult problem to which a man can devote himself is the problem of education Education should teach students how to think according to principles - moral laws, moral ideals and moral imperatives Enlightenment is the goal of education

    31. Educational Aims of Idealism Develop the mind Search for true ideas Character development Self-realization

    32. Educational Aims of Idealism True education is concerned with ideas rather than matter. The idealists wants to give students a broad understanding of the world in which they live.

    33. The Idealist and the Chair To an idealist, the concept of chair is important. You could destroy all the chairs in the world but they would still exist in the mind. The idea of a chair is the ultimate truth.

    34. Realism

    35. Realism Reality, knowledge and value exist independent of the human mind. Trees, sticks and stones exist whether or not there is a human mind to perceive them.

    36. Realism Ideas must be subject to public verification must be proven through scientific experimentation Science for the sake of science

    37. Realism Universal properties of objects remain constant and never change, whereas particular components do change

    38. Realism Need to study nature systematically Deductive reasoning - truth is derived from generalizations Earth is the center of the universe

    39. Leaders of Realism Aristotle (384-322 BC) Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) Francis Bacon (1561-1626) John Locke (1632-1704)

    40. Aristotle (384-322 BC) Ideas may be important but a proper study of matter could lead us to better and more distinct ideas.

    41. Aristotle (384-322 BC) Golden Mean - a path between extremes Balance is key - body and mind operate together in a balanced whole

    42. Aquinas (1225-1274) God created matter; therefore it must be ok to learn about it This view helped lead civilization out of the dark ages, replaced the influence of Augustine

    43. Aquinas Truth was passed from God to Humans by divine revelation, but God also has endowed humans with the reasoning ability to seek out truth.

    44. Bacon (1561-1626) Novum Organum - challenged Aristotelian logic Science must be concerned with inquiry, pure and simple with no preconceived notions We need to examine all previously accepted knowledge

    45. Bacon (1561-1626) Need to rid our mind of idols Idol of the Den - we believe things because of limited experience Idol of the Tribe - we believe things because many people believe them Idol of the Marketplace - we are mislead by language Idol of the Theatre - Religion and philosophy may prevent us from see the world objectively

    46. Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626) Known as the father of inductive reasoning arrive at generalizations from systematic observations of particulars Died as a result of the only experiment he performed - stuffed a dead chicken with snow to see if it would preserve the flesh, caught a cold and died

    47. John Locke (1632-1704) At birth, the mind is a blank sheet of paper - a tabla rasa All ideas are derived from experience by way of sensation and reflection

    48. Realism and Education Promotes the study of science and the scientific method There are essential ideas and facts to be learned; therefore lecture and other formal methods of teaching are useful

    49. Realism and Education Find specialization to be desirable Like structure ringing bells, departments, daily lesson plans If something exists, it can be measured IQ, Effective teaching Approve of competencies, performance-based teaching, accountability

    50. Realism and Education Teacher should present material in a systematic, organized way and teach that there are clearly defined criteria for making judgements in art, economics, politics, etc.

    51. The Realist and the Chair To a realist, the actuality of chair is important. A realist would measure the chair, weight it, examine the physical characteristics, etc. The fact that the chair exists is the ultimate truth.

    52. Pragmatism

    53. Pragmatism The root of the word Pragmatism is a Greek word meaning work. It is primarily a 20th century philosophy developed by Americans. Truth is what works in the real world. We must keep the desired end in mind. Ideas should be applied to solving problems; including social problems.

    54. Leaders in Pragmatism Auguste Comte, 1798-1857 Not a pragmatist but emphasized using science to solve social problems

    55. Leaders in Pragmatism Charles Darwin, 1809-1882 Reality is not found in Being, but in Becoming Reality is open-ended, in process, with no fixed end.

    56. American Pragmatists Charles Sanders Peirce, 1839-1914 Widely acknowledged as the father of pragmatism Wrote an article on How to make our Ideas Clear in Popular Science Monthly that is regarded as the basis for pragmatism. True knowledge of anything depends upon verfication of our ideas in actual experience

    57. American Pragmatists William James, 1842-1910 The truth of an idea is its workability Truth is not absolute and immutable; rather it is made in actual, real-life James called his philosophy radical empericism Jamess 1907 book Pragmatism did much to promote pragmatism. Rufus Stimson, a leader in agricultural education, studied under James.

    58. American Pragmatists John Dewey, 1859-1952 Need to concentrate on real-life problems Sought practical solutions for practical problems How We Think Felt Difficulty Define the problem Formulate possible solutions Examine & Evaluate possible solutions Accept or reject solutions

    59. Pragmatism and Education Education should be preparation for life Solving problems is important; therefore use real-life situations Teaching methods should be varied and flexible Education should be action oriented Needs and interests of students should be considered

    60. Pragmatism and Education Project approach to teaching is desirable Curriculum is varied A broad education is more desirable

    61. The Pragmatist and the Chair To a pragmatist, the use of the chair is important. What is the purpose of the chair and does it fulfil that purpose? The workability of a chair is the ultimate truth.

    62. Reconstructionism

    63. Reconstructionism Society is in need of constant reconstruction Such social change involves both a reconstruction of education and the use of education in reconstructing society Problems are viewed holistically Futuristic thinking (utopian thinking)

    64. Reconstructionism Do not believe preparing students for the world as it exists today will be sufficient (too much emphasis on the status quo)

    65. Reconstuctionists want to: link thought with action theory with practice intellect with activism

    66. Reconstructionism The goal of education should be to emphasize the need for change Students should be out in the real world World curriculum Technology is valuable in solving problems

    67. Noted Reconstructionists George S. Counts Theodore Brameld Paole Freire Karl Marx Ivan Illich John Dewey (he is also recognized as a pragmatist)

    68. The Reconstructionist and the Chair To a reconstructionist, the redesign of the chair to better serve the needs of society is important. How can the chair be improved to prepare society for the future?

    69. Existentialism

    70. Existentialism Received new emphasis in the 60s and 70s Civil rights Women rights Individual rights Special needs

    71. Existentialism In education curriculum was revamped to meet the needs (more accurately - demands) of individuals mainstreaming Pass or fail grade policies extended drop deadlines in college elimination of core courses decline of corporal punishment

    72. Existentialism In extension there was a focus on serving non-traditional clientele Focus shifted toward the urban environment

    73. Existentialism Traditional philosophies - consider questions about the nature of knowledge, truth and meaning but: Existentialists are concerned with how these things are educationally significant within the lived experiences of individuals.

    74. Existentialism and Education People come first, then ideas People create ideas Emphasis on self discovery

    75. Existentialism and Schools A good education emphasizes individuality Students should take a positive role in shaping their schools

    76. Existentialism and Schools Students shouldnt have to: attend classes take examinations receive grades There is no set curriculum

    77. Noted Existentialists Soren Kierkegaard Martin Heidigger Martin Buber Jean-Paul Sartre

    78. The Existentialist and the Chair To an existentialist, the individuals use of chair is important. Whatever the individual wants to do with the chair is important. The experience of the individual with the chair is the ultimate truth.

    79. Match the philosophy to the image Idealism Realism Pragmatism Reconstructionism Existentialism