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Overview of Health Communication Campaigns. May 3 & 4, 2005. Before we get started…. Help yourself to refreshments! Please take materials from handouts table Pick one of the 4 campaigns that most interests you: Best Start’s Campaign on Alcohol and Pregnancy; Not to Kids Radio Campaign;

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before we get started
Before we get started…..
  • Help yourself to refreshments!
  • Please take materials from handouts table
  • Pick one of the 4 campaigns that most interests you:
    • Best Start’s Campaign on Alcohol and Pregnancy;
    • Not to Kids Radio Campaign;
    • Preventing and Addressing Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorder;
    • Canadian Psychiatric Research Foundation
  • Move to the matching table and group (as per tent cards on the tables).
cdc 50 years
CDC 50 years
  • What is memorable about this video?
  • Why?
definition of health communication
Definition of Health Communication
  • The process of promoting health by disseminating messages through mass media, interpersonal channels and events.
  • May include diverse activities such as clinician-patient interactions, classes, self-help groups, mailings, hotlines, mass media campaigns, events.
  • Efforts can be directed toward individuals, networks, small groups, organizations, communities or entire nations.
thcu s definition of health communication

Where good health promotion and good communication practice meet.

From Rootman and Hershfield, “Health Communication Research: Broadening the Scope”. Health Communication. 6(1), 69-72. (1996)

THCU’s Definition of Health Communication
comprehensive health communication campaigns 1
Comprehensive Health Communication campaigns (1)
  • goal-oriented attempts to inform, persuade or motivate behaviour change;
  • ideally aimed at the individual, network, organizational and community/societal levels;
  • aimed at a relatively large, well-defined audience (i.e.,they are not interpersonal persuasion);
  • provide non-commercial benefits to the individual and/or society;
comprehensive health communication campaigns 2
Comprehensive Health Communication campaigns (2)
  • occur during a given time period, which may range from a few weeks to many years;
  • are most effective when they include a combination of media, interpersonal and community events; and,
  • involve an organized set of communication activities.
  • Based on Everett M. Rogers, and J. Douglas Storey, “Communication Campaigns,” in Charles R. Berger and Steven H. Chaffee (eds.), Handbook of Communication Science, Sage: Newbury Park, CA, (1988).
types of health communication
Types of Health Communication
  • Persuasive or Behavioural Communications (which may employ social marketing strategies)
  • Risk Communication
  • Media Advocacy
  • Entertainment Education
  • Interactive Health Communication
  • Development Communication
  • Participatory Communication
  • To assist agencies and individuals involved in health promotion initiatives to plan, implement and evaluate communication campaigns.
  • To enhance participants' abilities to critically assess health communication products and campaigns.
  • To increase awareness, understanding and access to a broad range of services and resources available through THCU and others.
  • By the end of the workshop, participants will be able to:
    • define health communication and communication campaigns;
    • explain the importance of, and basic process involved with completing each of the 12 steps outlined in the workshop;
    • understand how to use a variety of THCU’s tools to complete each of the 12 steps
    • conduct a health communication campaign by following the 12 steps and using other relevant services and resources available through THCU.
  • Evaluation
  • Bike rack
  • Signup sheet
  • Materials
  • Materials for review (afternoon)
  • Contract to proceed
case study
Case Study

Implementing THCU’s Twelve Step Health Communication Model: Case Study #4

Project Breakthrough:

A Campaign to Reduce Stigma Attached to Mental Illnesses from the Canadian Psychiatric Research Foundation

August, 2006


the 12 steps 1
The 12 steps (1)
  • Manage time, costs, data, participation and decision-making.
  • REVIEW Health Promotion strategy to determine role of communication, evaluation and indicators.
  • Gather and interpret qualitative and quantitative data to understand audience behaviors, demographics, and psychographics.
  • Inventory communication channels, vehicles, events and resources already available to you.
  • Set meaningful and strategic communication objectives.
the 12 steps 2
The 12 steps (2)
  • Select the most effective and efficient (greatest reach at least cost) vehicles
  • Sequence and combine your activities to be most effective as well as efficient
  • Determine the "now what, so what, and what's" of your message strategy as well as approach (type of appeal, source, tone, etc)
  • Determine what you want your audience to think and feel about you, your issue, and your organization.
the 12 steps 3
The 12 steps (3)
  • Produce the best products within budget and on time.
  • Implement a comprehensive multi-level communication campaign.
  • Gather, interpret and act upon your formative, process and summative evaluations.
step 1 action summary project management
Step 1 Action Summary: Project Management
  • Nature of task
    • Develop plan to manage stakeholder participation, time, money, other resources, data gathering and interpretation, decision-making.
  • Complete worksheet and/or adopt/adapt sample project management worksheets.
    • Generic information p. 11 wkbk
    • Blank worksheets p. 80 wkbk
    • Sample filled-in worksheets


step 1 action summary project management tips
Step 1 Action Summary: Project Management - Tips
  • Develop plan to engage stakeholders in a meaningful way.
  • Establish a clear decision-making process.
  • Establish a clear timeline for working through the 12 campaign steps.
  • Plan how you will distribute your available resources throughout the 12 steps.
  • Consider what data is required for you to make decisions at each of the 12 steps.
larry s tips for communication planning
Larry's tips for communication planning
  • Use "right brain" methods
  • Use small groups to generate drafts, lists of possibilities & large group to revise, prioritize, critique
  • Use your time to create end documents from the outset e.g. creative briefs
  • Use minutes to track key decisions, milestones, action steps, reminders.
project management examples

Thorough, evidence-based audience analysis

Develop materials from scratch

Very rigorous

345 hours of a coordinator’s time

29-47 weeks

9, ½ day meetings, 1 full day


This is the minimum level of resources required to achieve change through a health communication campaign.

Use existing experience for audience analysis.

Use and/or adapt existing materials.

Requires 100 hours of a coordinator’s time; 10-15 weeks; and three ½-day and one full-day meeting.

Project Management Examples

Three brick layers were asked what they were doing. One said, “I’m laying bricks”. The second replied, “I’m building a wall”. The third stated, “I’m building a temple”.-Anon.

revisit your health promotion strategy
Revisit Your

Health Promotion Strategy

Step Two
objectives game
Objectives Game
  • You have received one piece of different communication objectives.
  • There are four pieces for each objective, each with a different colour.
  • Work with the people in the room to piece together the objectives. In the best way!
step 2 health promotion strategy action summary
Step 2: Health Promotion Strategy Action Summary
  • Nature of task
    • Establish/confirm a complete health promotion strategy.
  • Complete worksheet.
    • Generic information p. 15 wkbk
    • Blank worksheets p. 85 wkbk
step 2 revisit health promotion strategy tips
Step 2: Revisit Health Promotion Strategy - Tips
  • Consider measurable objectives at all four levels (i.e. individual, network, organizational, societal) and ensure they are realistic, clear, specific, a strategic priority, measurable, attainable, and time-limited.
  • Ensure your project team is aware and supportive of your health promotion strategy.
  • Use logic models as well as narratives (stories, vignettes, etc.) to review and describe the strategy.
three approaches to health communication
Three Approaches to Health Communication
  • Media
    • Limited involvement
    • Appropriate only for certain objectives
  • Interpersonal Communication
    • May flow from media messages as opinion leaders and others share, endorse, etc.
    • More involvement
  • Events
    • Combination of media and interpersonal
    • Designed to be newsworthy
the four levels
The Four Levels
  • Consider, for a moment, the following…
    • Do you believe that an individual can change his/her behaviour?
    • Do you believe that an individual’s behaviours are influenced by the social, workplace, and community networks to which they belong?
    • Do you believe that the environments in which people eat, play, work and worship influence their behaviour?
    • Do you believe that the laws and regulations of a society/community influence individual behaviour?
step 3 audience analysis action summary 1
Step 3: Audience Analysis Action Summary (1)
  • Nature of task
    • Collect information about the demographic, behavioural and psychographic characteristics of your chosen audience/s and use it to create an audience profile.
    • Examine the characteristics of your audience to determine whether they can be segmented into smaller, more homogenous groups.
  • Complete audience analysis worksheet and enter final audiences onto monster or mini monster sheet.
    • Generic information p. 21 wkbk
    • Blank worksheet p. 86
    • Blank mini monster sheet http://www.thcu.ca/infoandresources/health_communication.htm
step 3 audience analysis action summary tips
Step 3: Audience Analysis Action Summary - Tips
  • Where possible, segment your audience
  • Use both existing and new data.
  • Use both qualitative and quantitative data.
  • Use a combination of inexpensive and more expensive means.
  • Ensure that multiple data sources confirm the conclusions in your audience profile.
  • Ensure you have a complete and compelling understanding about your audience.
  • The process of breaking down a large audience into a smaller number of subgroups that are as homogenous as possible, and as different from each other group as possible.
  • Helps to:
    • better describe and understand a segment
    • predict behaviour
    • formulate tailored messages and programs to meet specific needs
    • set objectives that will reflect your overall goal.
making a difference ii
Making a Difference II
  • TGIF (Thank-goodness it’s Friday)
  • Concerned Moralists
  • Passive Luddites
  • Small Town Traditionalists
  • Big City Independents


the segmentation process
The Segmentation Process
  • Identify variables.
  • Prioritize variables.
  • Map out possibilities.
  • Choose segments from possibilities:
    • Eliminate
    • Rank order
    • Combine where necessary/appropriate.
audience analysis techniques

focus groups





diaries and journals


bedroom tours


media outlet profiles


questionnaires (mail, telephone, on-line)

web search patterns

Audience Analysis Techniques

You can observe

a lot

just by watching.

Yogi Berra

don t use research like a drunk uses a lamp post use it for illumination not support david ogilvy
Don’t use research like a drunk uses a lamp post, use it for illumination, not support-David Ogilvy
guidelines for collecting audience analysis data
Guidelines for Collecting Audience Analysis Data
  • Use qualitative and quantitative data
  • Use existing and new data
  • Use inexpensive and more expensive means (as resources permit).
when do we have enough
When do we have enough?
  • When our picture is relatively complete.
  • When our picture is valid (triangulate)
  • When our picture is compelling
step 4 communication inventory action summary
Step 4: Communication Inventory Action Summary
  • Nature of the task
    • Make a list of the existing communication resources in your community and organization – including alliances and good relationships.
    • Assess the strengths, weakness and possibilities of getting your message delivered through these resources.
  • Complete worksheet.
    • Generic information p. 27 wkbk
    • Blank worksheets p. 87 wkbk
  • Tips
    • Modify existing inventories/directories if available.
review case studies
Review Case Studies
  • Read
  • Mark up with your comments & questions as they arise
  • Consider steps one to four campaign review tool
step 5 objectives action summary
Step 5: Objectives Action Summary
  • Nature of the task
    • Identify the bottom-line changes you hope to accomplish (from your health promotion strategy – step 2) as a result of your communication activities.
  • Complete worksheet and fill in appropriate spaces on monster or mini monster sheet.
    • Generic information p.29 wkbk
    • Blank worksheets p. 89 wkbk
    • Blank mini monster sheet http://www.thcu.ca/infoandresources/health_communication.htm
step 5 objectives tips
Step 5: Objectives - Tips
  • Consider all four levels when setting objectives.
  • Trace backwards from the changes you seek, to identify the determinants of those changes. Use models of change (see Toolkit) and menu of possible objectives (in Toolkit).
  • Limit yourself to 2-3 objectives per level.
  • Describe a change, rather than an action step.
  • Ensure objectives are SMART (specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, time-limited).
  • Ensure objectives are a strategic priority (i.e. a good fit between needs, capacities and your mandate.
a good objective is
A Good Objective Is:
  • Communication-related.
  • Outcome, rather than process-oriented.
  • Aligned with a change process and the right level.
  • Strategic.
Aerodynamically the bumble-bee shouldn’t be able to fly, but the bumble bee doesn’t know it, so it goes on flying anyway.
The way in which a message is sent.

For example, via:



interpersonal communication


a specific way to deliver a message through the channel e g in a newspaper
A specific way to deliver a message through the channel, e.g., in a newspaperVehicle


In-depth articles

Political Cartoons


step 6 channels and vehicles action summary
Step 6: Channels and Vehicles Action Summary
  • Nature of the task
    • Chose vehicles that will carry your message/s.
  • Complete worksheet and put choices on mini monster sheet
    • Generic information p. 31 wkbk
    • Blank worksheet p. 90 wkbk
    • Blank mini monster sheet http://www.thcu.ca/infoandresources/health_communication.htm
  • Tips
    • Chose the best vehicles for the situation, based on reach, cost and effectiveness (fit to situation, audience, objectives).
    • Use a mix of vehicles that vary in shelf life, complexity, etc
menu of channels and vehicles p 41 wkbk updated aug 26 02
Menu of Channels and Vehicles (p.41 wkbk) updated Aug 26/02


  • Direct Mail: brochures, generic letters, tailored letters, trial offers, kits, etc.
  • Displays
  • Magazines: articles, ads
  • Newspaper: editorials, news coverage, supplement, paid ad, unpaid/psa, etc.
  • Online world: bulletin boards, e-mail (tailored or generic), websites, liserves, advertisements, CDROM, etc.
  • Other Print: brochures, booklets, flyers, paycheck stuffers, newsletters, comics/stories, newsletter articles, newsletter ads, other print ad (e.g. in comic book), etc.
  • Outdoor: billboards, LED signage, transit shelter ads, bus ads, street car ads, etc.
  • Phone: direct calling with message, hotline (live), infoline (taped message), etc.
  • Point of Purchase: brochures/other print materials, demonstrations, displays, posters, videos, audio recordings (e.g. in supermarket), health information kiosks, etc.
  • Promotional Items: fridge magnets, hats, matches, condom wrappers, buttons, bags, pens, pencils, stress balls, etc.
  • Radio: community announcements, paid ads, unpaid psa’s, phone-in show, news coverage, guest speakers, editorials/commentaries, etc.
  • Television: community channel text ad/message, documentary/extended educational piece, edutainment, news coverage, paid ad, unpaid psa, etc.
channel vehicle menu con t updated aug 26 02
Channel & Vehicle Menu (con’t) updated Aug 26/02


  • Training
  • Speeches
  • Presentations
  • Courses
  • School lessons/curriculum
  • Peer interaction/discussion
  • Family interaction/discussion
  • Interaction/discussion with opinion leaders
  • Coaching/interaction with health care providers
  • Coaching/interaction with teachers


  • Conferences
  • Contests
  • Fairs
  • Fund-raisers
  • Rallies
  • Awards ceremonies
best vehicle effectiveness efficiency
Best Vehicle=Effectiveness+Efficiency
  • Effectiveness=Vehicle’s characteristics are best fit to objective
  • Efficiency

=(Reach * Frequency) / Cost

= Cost per impression

  • Reach=

# exposed to the message

– those not in the population of interest

+ sharing with others (second-hand exposure)

+ multiplication effect (promotes other channels and vehicles)

reach is a product of
Reach is a product of:
  • Audience size
  • Multiplicative power
  • Specificity
effectiveness is a function of updated oct 29 04
Effectiveness is a function of: Updated Oct 29/04
  • Specialization - ability to reach specific groups
  • Intrusiveness - ability to command attention
  • Interactivity – level of receiver involvement such as opportunity to ask questions and control the pace of information being delivered.
  • Array of senses stimulated

Adapted from content in Atkin, C. 2001. Impact of Public Service Advertising: Research Evidence and Effective Strategies. Project conducted for Kaiser Family Foundation.

effectiveness is a function of updated oct 29 0498
Effectiveness is a function of: Updated Oct 29/04
  • Personalization/tailoring
  • Complexity - mental effort required to understand and capacity for conveying detailed, complex content
  • Accessibility – level of difficulty producing and disseminating the channel/vehicle
  • Duration and message preservation – how long the message lasts

Adapted from content in Atkin, C. 2001. Impact of Public Service Advertising: Research Evidence and Effective Strategies. Project conducted for Kaiser Family Foundation.

another rule of three
Another rule of three
  • Pick one simple vehicle, largely to create and maintain awareness
  • Pick one moderately complex vehicle, largely to enhance motivation, change attitudes, overcome barriers
  • Pick one substantial vehicle to carry major messages, background, demonstrations, testimonials, etc
channel and vehicle card game
Channel and Vehicle Card Game
  • This game is played with two people—pair off!
  • Deal each person five Channel/Vehicle (C/V) cards and place the rest in the draw pile.
  • Either player can go first.
  • Play scenario B.
  • When it’s your turn, put down any C/V Card that you think meets the Best C/V Criteria (as outlined on the Cheat Sheet) for your scenario.
  • If your opponent challenges your card and can provide good reasons, draw another card from the pile.
  • If the challenge is not sustained, the challenger must take another card.
  • When neither person can put down any more cards, the person with the least number of cards wins.
  • What I learned…
  • What I struggled with…
  • In ‘real life’ I would…
  • In ‘real life’ I would not…
step 7 combining and sequencing action summary
Step 7: Combining and Sequencing Action Summary
  • Nature of the task
    • Combine and sequence channels and vehicles chosen in last step across campaign timeline.
  • Complete worksheet and mini monster sheet
    • Generic information p.43 wkbk
    • Blank worksheet p. 91 wkbk
    • Blank mini monster sheet http://www.thcu.ca/infoandresources/health_communication.htm
step 7 combining and sequencing tips
Step 7: Combining and Sequencing - Tips
  • create momentum over time by building on previous messages;
  • combine activities where possible;
  • repeat the message/s enough times to expose most members of your intended audience to the message 5 or more times; and
  • build on existing holidays and events (e.g. theme weeks, national conferences, etc.)
information on producing monster sheets
Information on producing monster sheets

Instructions for monster sheets: http://www.thcu.ca/infoandresources/health_communication.htm

Blank mini monster sheets:


combining and sequencing method
Combining and Sequencing Method
  • The purpose of this activity is to combine and sequence your communication activities. The various health communications will have greater power when they build upon each other and are otherwise appropriately timed.
  • Keep in mind the principles and criteria that have been outlined in this section.
  • Identify the timeframe for which you will be planning. We suggest 3-5 years for the overall campaign. For the purposes on the workshop, you may focus on a shorter time frame. Enter the starting and end times.
  • Then place on the timeline any existing significant events that might support (or interfere) with your campaign.
  • Then place each of your selected new activities on the timeline for the appropriate audience and set of objectives, indicating the time and name for each event.
  • Enter your proposed calendar of events on your monster sheet. Use post-its, pencil, projection onto whiteboard while in “draft mode”.
end of day one taking temperature
End of Day One – Taking Temperature
  • Behavioral prescription: stop, start, continue…
  • Reminders
    • Bring materials for review
    • Some “show and tell” or problem to solve at Sharing Time
    • Identify any questions about Health Communication and/or THCU services
    • Complete Day One evaluation forms.