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C arbon a M ost V ersatile A tom

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T he F our M ajor G roups of O rganic C ompounds: C arbohydrates, L ipids, P roteins, and N ucleic A cids; and T heir F unctions in L iving S ystems. C arbon a M ost V ersatile A tom. -The Carbon atom has 6 protons 6 neutrons 6 electrons

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The Four Major Groups of Organic Compounds: Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids; and Their Functions in Living Systems
c arbon a m ost v ersatile a tom
Carbon a Most Versatile Atom
  • -The Carbon atom has
  • 6 protons
  • 6 neutrons
  • 6 electrons
  • -Carbon has 4 electrons in its outermost energy level, therefore it needs four electrons to complete its octet.
  • -Carbon covalently shares
  • electrons with up to four other atoms. This characteristic makes Carbon very versatile when it comes to chemical structures.
c arbon s c hemical p roperties and m olecular d iversity
Carbon’s Chemical Properties and Molecular Diversity

Carbon Skeletons Vary

  • Carbon chains
    • Vary in length
    • May be linear or branched
    • May contain only c-c single bonds or may contain double and/or triple bonds at various locations
  • Carbon rings
    • May contain only single c-c bonds, or may contain double bonds
f unctional g roups c onfer s pecific p roperties to c arbon c ompounds
Functional Groups Confer Specific Properties to Carbon Compounds
  • Carbon skeletons come in may shapes and forms. These are basically Hydrocarbons (molecules composed of only Carbon and Hydrogen atoms).
  • Functional groups, have specific properties characteristic to their chemical structure and further add variety to the Hydrocarbon skeleton molecular structures.
m onomers p olymers d ehydration h ydrolysis
Monomers ↔PolymersDehydration ↔ Hydrolysis
  • Monomers are molecules that are chemically bonded through dehydration synthesis to make polymers, which are the functional macromolecules.
  • Polymers can be broken down into their monomer components through hydrolysis.
c arbohydrates aka s accharides are a ldoses and k etoses
Carbohydrates aka Saccharides Are Aldoses and Ketoses
  • Carbohydrates have the atomic ratio C:H2O.
  • They are composed of many monosaccharide (monomers) chemically combined through dehydration synthesis into polysaccharides (polymers).
  • Glucose C6H12O6 is made by plants and is the most common monosaccharide.
  • Serve as energy sources for plants, animals and other organisms. Converted into ATP energy.
  • Serve as structural molecules in plants and other organisms.
  • Dietary source: plant products.
  • Cellulose is bulk or fiber.
l ipids a re h ydrophobic
Lipids Are Hydrophobic
  • Lipids include:

fatty acids, steroids,

phospholipids, and waxes.

  • Because they are not solublein water, they are good structural, insulation, transport, and storage macromolecules,

such as:

    • Adipose tissue
    • cell membranes components
    • hormones
    • triglycerides
    • oils and waxes
f atty a cids a re l ong h ydrocarbons with a c arboxylic a cid f unctional g roup
Fatty Acids Are Long Hydrocarbons with a Carboxylic Acid Functional Group
  • Saturated fatty acids usually come from animal sources and are solid at room temperature, these are high in caloric value.
  • Unsaturated fatty acids usually come from plant sources and are liquid at room temperature, these are lower in caloric value.
s teroids
Steroids

. A steroid’s structure is composed of carbon rings.

. Steroids serve as the structural components of many hormones, such as

estrogen and testosterone.

. Steroids are essential for maintaining the fluidity of cell membranes.

. Diets rich in saturated fats promote accumulation of LDL “bad cholesterol” in the wall of arteries, reducing blood flow and promoting hypertension and the incidence of strokes.

p roteins
Proteins
  • Proteins are the structural components of living tissue. They also serve as enzymes, hormones, and immunoglobulins, among many other roles.
  • Proteins are composed of amino acids (a.a.). We acquire a.a. by consuming meat, fowl, fish, dairy, eggs, legumes, and nuts
p roteins c omposed of a mino a cids
Proteins: Composed of Amino Acids
  • Amino acids are the monomers that are dehydrated to form polypeptides or proteins.
  • Humans have about 20 different amino acids from which proteins are synthesized. The difference between one protein and another has to do with the number of amino acids that a protein contains and the unique sequences in which the amino acids are arranged.
  • Protein synthesis occurs in the ribosomes of cells and is controlled by genetic information.
p rotein s ynthesis
Protein Synthesis:
  • Amino acids are chemically combined through dehydration synthesis by peptide bonds to form polypeptides (protein)
  • The sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide is determined by genetic information
n ucleic a cids h ave s ugars n itrogenous b ases and o rganic p hosphate c omponents
Nucleic Acids Have Sugars, Nitrogenous Basesand Organic Phosphate Components
  • Nucleic Acids serve as information macromolecules, such as DNA and RNA. (We will study these further in the future.)
  • Another type of Nucleic Acid, ATP, serves as the energy currency of cells. (We will study ATP further in the future.)
  • Nucleotides (picture at left) are the molecular components of Nucleic Acids.
s tructure i s a lways r elated to f unction
Structure Is Always Related to Function
  • Living organisms require thousands of different types of molecules to maintain their structure and sustain their body’s functions.
  • The ability of Carbon to bond with four other atoms is the basis for the vast variety of chemical structures found in organisms.
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