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Office Ergonomics and OSHA . Cecilia R. Aragon IEOR 170 UC Berkeley Spring 2006. Acknowledgments. Jeffrey Chung, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory ergonomics program manager Cathy Rothwell, US Navy ergonomics program manager. OSHA - Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

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office ergonomics and osha

Office Ergonomics and OSHA

Cecilia R. Aragon

IEOR 170

UC Berkeley

Spring 2006

acknowledgments
Acknowledgments
  • Jeffrey Chung, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory ergonomics program manager
  • Cathy Rothwell, US Navy ergonomics program manager

IEOR 170

osha occupational safety and health administration
OSHA - Occupational Safety and Health Administration
  • Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970
  • Purpose:
    • setting standards
    • conducting workplace inspections to ensure that employers are complying with the standards and providing a safe and healthful workplace

IEOR 170

who is covered by osha
Who is Covered by OSHA?
  • In general (with some exceptions), all employers and their employees in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico.

IEOR 170

who is covered by osha5
Who is Covered by OSHA?
  • All employers and employees except:
    • Self-employed persons
    • Farms at which only immediate members of the farmer's family are employed
    • Working conditions regulated by other federal agencies under other federal statutes. This category includes most employment in mining, nuclear energy and nuclear weapons manufacture, and many segments of the transportation industries.
    • Employees of state and local governments(unless covered by an OSHA-approved state program)

IEOR 170

osha standards
OSHA Standards
  • Employers must protect workers on the job.
  • Employers have the responsibility to know relevant standards and comply.
  • Compliance may include providing personal protective equipment for employees.
  • Employees must also comply with OSHA rules and regulations.

IEOR 170

general duty clause
“General Duty” Clause
  • The general duty clause of the OSH Act [Section 5(a)(1)] states that each employer "shall furnish . . . a place of employment which is free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his employees."

IEOR 170

federal osha requirements
Federal OSHA Requirements
  • Access to Medical and Exposure Records
    • Employers must grant employees access to medical records and records on employees’ exposure to toxic substances.
  • Personal Protective Equipment
    • Employers must provide employees at no cost personal protective equipment (e.g. protective helmets to prevent head injuries in construction and cargo handling work, eye protection, hearing protection, hard-toed shoes, special goggles, etc.)
  • Hazard Communication
    • Employers must conduct hazard evaluation of the products they manufacture or import. If hazardous, containers of the material must be labeled and accompanied by a material safety data sheet (MSDS). Employers must train their employees to recognize and avoid material hazards.

IEOR 170

federal osha regulations
Federal OSHA Regulations
  • Recordkeeping
    • Every employer covered by OSHA who has more than 10 employees, except for certain low-hazard industries such as retail, finance, insurance, real estate, and some service industries, must maintain OSHA-specified records of job-related injuries and illnesses.
  • Reporting
    • Each employer, regardless of number of employees or industry category, must report to the nearest OSHA office within 8 hours of any accident that results in one or more fatalities or hospitalization of three or more employees.
  • Posting
    • Post prominently the OSHA poster (OSHA 3165) informing employees of their rights and responsibilities.

IEOR 170

state programs
State Programs
  • States with OSHA-approved job safety and health programs must set standards that are at least as effective as the equivalent federal standard.
  • Most of the state-plan states adopt standards identical to the federal ones.

IEOR 170

cal osha responsibilities
Cal/OSHA Responsibilities
  • Enforce California laws and regulations pertaining to workplace safety and health
    • The Cal/OSHA Enforcement Unit conducts inspections of California workplaces based on worker complaints, accident reports and high hazard industries.
  • Provide assistance to employers and workers about workplace safety and health issues
    • The Cal/OSHA Consultation Service provides assistance to employers and workers about workplace safety and health issues, and develops educational materials on workplace safety and health topics.

IEOR 170

for more information
For More Information
  • OSHA
    • http://www.osha.gov
    • http://www.ehso.com/oshaoverview.php
  • Cal/OSHA
    • http://www.dir.ca.gov/dosh/dosh1.html
    • http://www.dir.ca.gov/occupational_safety.html

IEOR 170

ergonomics
Ergonomics

IEOR 170

what is ergonomics er go nom ics rg go n m iks
What is Ergonomics? er·go·nom·ics \, ûrg-go-'näm-iks

‘Ergonomics’ is derived from two Greek words

Ergon meaning work

and

Nomos meaning principles or laws

Ergonomics = The Science of Work

Ergonomics is not a new science, although the term has become more common lately. The phrase was first coined in 1857.

[Rothwell]

IEOR 170

common definitions

What is Ergonomics? er·go·nom·ics \, ûrg-go-'näm-iks

Common Definitions

“Ergonomics is essentially fitting the workplace to the worker. The better the fit the higher the level of safety and worker efficiency.” Fitting the Task to the Human ~ Grandjean 1990

“Ergonomics removes barriers to quality, productivity and human performance by fitting products, tasks, and environments to people.” ErgoWeb.com

[Rothwell]

IEOR 170

what are the consequences of poor ergonomics
What are the consequences of poor ergonomics?
  • Why are we hearing about ergonomics now? Are there new hazards at work? No!
    • Consequences of poor workplace design were first documented in the 17th century.
  • Have you ever heard of these?
    • Historic Occupational Disorders - house-maid’s knee, washer woman’s thumb, writer’s cramp, data-processing disease, clergyman’s knee, nun’s bursitis, weaver’s bottom, dustman’s shoulder, tailor’s ankle

[Rothwell]

IEOR 170

do these historic occupational disorders still exist yes
Do these historic occupational disorders still exist? Yes!
  • They are part of a broad category of injuries and disorders called Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs). MSDs are not usually caused by acute trauma, but occur slowly over time due to repetitive injuries to the soft tissues (muscles, tendons, ligaments, joints, cartilage) and nervous system.
  • MSDs can happen to anyone from office workers and industrial employees to athletes and hobbyists.

Before Improved

IEOR 170

do these historic occupational disorders still exist yes18
Do these historic occupational disorders still exist? Yes!
  • Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs) are MSDs that are caused or made worse by work methods and environment. They occur when the physical capabilities of the worker do not match the physical requirements of the job.
  • Common MSDs:
    • Tendonitis, Epicondylitis(Tennis or Golfer’s Elbow), Bursitis, Trigger Finger, Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, Back Strain

[Rothwell]

Before Improved

IEOR 170

what are aliases for wmsds
What are aliases for WMSDs?
  • Work-related MSDs go by many other names:
    • Repetitive Strain or Stress Injury (RSI)
    • Repetitive Motion Injury (RMI)
    • Cumulative Trauma Disorder (CTD)
    • Overuse Syndrome
    • Activity-related Pain Syndrome

Ergonomics can help prevent MSDs that are caused or aggravated by working conditions

[Rothwell]

IEOR 170

slide20
MSDs
  • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
  • Cubital Tunnel Syndrome
  • Tendonitis and Tenosynovitis
  • Trigger Finger
  • Epicondylitis
  • De Quervain’s Tenosynovitis
  • Wrist Ganglion Cyst

[Chung]

IEOR 170

tendonitis
Tendonitis
  • Normal tendon glides smoothly in a tendon sheath
  • When under pressure, the capillary flow to the sheath is temporarily interrupted.
  • When blood supply returns, swelling occurs.

[Chung]

IEOR 170

double crush syndromes
Double Crush Syndromes
  • Multiple points of pressure will have cumulative effects on axonal flow.

[Chung]

IEOR 170

carpal tunnel inside of wrist
Carpal Tunnel, Inside of Wrist
  • Inside view of right wrist
  • Yellow nerve crosses under flexor retinaculum
  • Nerve has to share the space with nine tendons and tendon sheaths.

[Chung]

IEOR 170

should employers care about ergonomics
Should Employers Care About Ergonomics?

Average 2003 cost for LBNL computer-related workers’ compensation claims: $23,745.

[Chung]

IEOR 170

office ergonomics

The science of "designing the job to fit the worker, not forcing the worker to fit the job."

  • Ergonomics covers all aspects of jobs:
    • physical stresses placed on joints, muscles, nerves, tendons, bones, etc.
    • environmental factors affecting hearing, vision, and general comfort and health.
Office Ergonomics

USER

TASKS

EQUIPMENT

  • Enhance comfort
  • Increased productivity
  • Improve job satisfaction and morale
  • Reduced musculoskeletal discomfort,work injuries/illnesses

ENVIRONMENT

WORK CULTURE

[Chung]

IEOR 170

designing for the worker
Designing for the Worker
  • Anthropometrics
    • branch of ergonomics that deals with the measurement of body dimensions
    • anthropometric data is used in the design of equipment and products to make them fit the height and reach of “most” of the potential population
    • Gaussian distribution, design to 5%
  • Consider range of size, age, and physical ability when designing
    • Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)

IEOR 170

adjustability
Adjustability
  • Anthropometrics - designing for middle 50%?
  • American airplanes vs. the Russian Sukhoi

IEOR 170

ergonomic risk factors
Ergonomic Risk Factors
  • Awkward positions
  • Static postures
  • Repetitive motion
  • Forceful exertion
  • Contact pressure

IEOR 170

at risk thresholds
At Risk Thresholds
  • Per OSHA, certain situations create MSD risks:
    • Performing same motion pattern every few seconds for > 2 hours continuously or 4 hours daily.
    • Maintaining non-neutral (unsupported, static/fixed or awkward posture > one (1) hour continuously or four (4) hours daily.
    • Forceful hand exertions > two (2) hours daily.
    • Unassisted frequent or heavy lifting
    • Boredom and monotony

Do you have these risks?

[Chung]

IEOR 170

warning signs
Warning Signs
  • Watch for:
  • Tingling or numbness in hands
  • Pain: sharp, dull or burning sensation
  • Stiffness, reduced range of motion in arms, wrists
  • Clumsiness, loss of grip strength or coordination
  • Visual fatigue, watery eyes, dryness.

[Chung]

IEOR 170

three stages of ctds
Three Stages of CTDs
  • Stage One
    • aches and tiredness during working hours
    • symptoms settle overnight or days off work
    • no reduction in work performance
    • condition may persist for weeks or months and is reversible
  • Stage Two
      • symptoms start early in work shift and don’t settle overnight
      • sleep may be disturbed
      • capacity to perform repetitive work is reduced
      • condition usually persists for months

[Chung]

IEOR 170

three stages of ctds33
Three Stages of CTDs
  • Stage Three
    • symptoms persist even at rest
    • pain occurs with non-repetitive movements of affected area
    • sleep is disturbed
    • person unable to perform even light duties and has difficulties with other manual tasks

[Chung]

IEOR 170

workstation setup neutral posture
Workstation Setup: Neutral Posture

1.Use a good chair and sit back

2. Top of monitor 2-3" (5-8 cm) above eyes

3. No glare on screen

4. Sit at arms length

5. Feet on floor or footrest

6. Use a document holder

7. Wrists flat and straight

8. Arms and elbows close to body

9. Center monitor and keyboard in front of you

10. Use a negative tilt keyboard tray

11. Use a stable work surface

12. Take frequent micro-breaks

IEOR 170

workstation setup neutral posture35
Workstation Setup: Neutral Posture
  • Other Office Items
  • Telephones
  • Staplers
  • Staple removers
  • Letter openers
  • Hole punches
  • Pens for writing tasks

Work within your normal

range of motion

[Chung]

IEOR 170

sitting risk factors
Sitting Risk Factors

Neutral Posture

Slumped Posture

[Chung]

IEOR 170

posture and spinal stress
Posture and Spinal Stress

lbs

660

550

440

330

220

110

Load on 3rd Lumbar Disc in 155-pound male

[Chung]

IEOR 170

reaching range of motion factors
Reaching/Range of Motion Factors
  • Elbow
  • Arm/Wrist
  • Shoulder
  • Back
  • Elbows in
  • Face the object you are reaching for.

[Chung]

IEOR 170

watch the hand movements
Watch the Hand Movements

DON'T rest your wrists on the desktop

DO let your wrists float

[Chung]

IEOR 170

watch the hand movements40
Watch the Hand Movements

SAFER

[Chung]

IEOR 170

contact pressure
Contact Pressure

Soft tissue compression

(muscles, nerves & blood vessels)

[Chung]

IEOR 170

ergo accessories chair
Ergo Accessories - Chair

Features:

  • Height
  • Seat pan
  • Backrest height
  • Backrest tilt
  • Armrest height
    • Armrest width

(chairs may have none, some, or all of these).

[Chung]

IEOR 170

ergo chairs accessories
Ergo Chairs & Accessories

Features/Adjustments:

  • Height
  • Seat pan (width/depth)
  • Backrest height
  • Backrest tilt
  • Backrest tension
  • Armrests
  • Casters

[Chung]

IEOR 170

monitor accessories
Monitor Accessories
  • Screen height at eye level (exception: bifocals and trifocal lens wearers).
  • Screen distance about arms length away.
  • Room lighting -avoid backlight, shadows or reflective glare.

[Chung]

IEOR 170

keyboards and accessories
Keyboards and Accessories

Voice-activated

[Chung]

IEOR 170

telephone use
Telephone Use
  • Phone evaluation: reach, placement, call frequency vs. duration, multi-tasking, etc.
  • Cradle with neck/shoulder
  • Cordless unit / motorized unit

[Chung]

IEOR 170

document holders
Document Holders

Place hardcopy beside or in front of monitor to reduce neck twisting.

[Chung]

IEOR 170

notebooks laptops etc
Notebooks, Laptops, Etc.
  • Laptops can cause:
    • Awkward arm position
    • Neck flexion to view the screen
    • Neck pain from carrying/transporting laptops
  • Fixes:
    • Use docking station and external input devices.
    • Acquire portable devices and accessories.

[Chung]

IEOR 170

potential at risk condition s
Potential At-Risk Condition(s)?

Guidelines: Shoulders relaxed/arms close to body side; safe reaching distance for mouse; neutral sitting

  • Right hand on mouse even when not actively mousing (median nerve).
  • Left lean supporting body weight with arm; spine out of natural alignment
  • Ulnar nerve compression (non-mousing elbow)
  • Static muscle loading: right shoulder abduction, wrist extension, flexed left arm

[Chung]

IEOR 170

computer workstation considerations

Layout

Document Use

Lighting

Writing

Chair

Laptop

Work Surface

Work Style

Monitor and Vision

Task Breaks

Input Devices (keyboard and pointing)

Telephone Use

Discomfort

Computer Workstation Considerations

Individual Issues

[Chung]

IEOR 170

computer workstation
Computer Workstation
  • Order of adjustments is important
    • Adjust chair first
    • Then adjust keyboard
    • Finally, adjust monitor
  • No single “right” way to sit

IEOR 170