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    1. Programas de la Administracin Federal de Aviacin de Estados Unidos (FAA), la Direccin General de Aeronutica Civil de Mxico (DGAC) y el Ministerio de Transportes de Canad (TC) para reducir los accidentes de la aviacin general Cartagena, Colombia 26 y 27 de mayo de 2005

    2. Meta: reducir los accidentes de la aviacin general Esfuerzos de la Trinacional para reducir los accidentes de la aviacin general (seleccin de extractos de presentaciones hechas en Ixtapa, Mxico (enero de 2005) 1- Iniciativas de la FAA 2- Iniciativas de la DGAC 3- Iniciativas de TC Safety improvement programs for the general aviation sector in Canada are founded on several important operating principles set out in the Civil Aviation Program Charter. Among these are: Promoting a shared commitment with the aviation community to enhancing aviation safety in Canada and internationally; Using risk management techniques and policies in our decision-making; Delegating authority to responsible persons and organizations; Maintaining open communications and sharing information; Consulting early and throughout the rule-making process; and Creating an environment that fosters continuous improvement.Safety improvement programs for the general aviation sector in Canada are founded on several important operating principles set out in the Civil Aviation Program Charter. Among these are: Promoting a shared commitment with the aviation community to enhancing aviation safety in Canada and internationally; Using risk management techniques and policies in our decision-making; Delegating authority to responsible persons and organizations; Maintaining open communications and sharing information; Consulting early and throughout the rule-making process; and Creating an environment that fosters continuous improvement.

    3. Iniciativas de la FAA para reducir accidentes de la aviacin general Seleccin de extractos

    4. Anlisis de accidentes ocurridos en el Golfo de Mxico Anlisis de la FAA y la industria Meta Reducir el nmero de accidentes de helicptero ocurridos mar adentro en el Golfo de Mxico Anlisis 1999-2004 Objetivo -- determinar las causas profundas y la conducta que produjeron un accidente mar adentro Categoras de comportamientos Errores por descuido Actos imprudentes Actos intencionales Indeterminados Cualificacin

    5. Anlisis de accidentes en el Golfo de Mxico

    6. Programas especiales de la aviacin general

    7. FAA/Normas de capacitacin de la industria (FITS) FITS es un programa de capacitacin basado en escenarios, elaborado por la FAA, la industria y profesores universitarios, con el objeto de ayudar a los pilotos de pequeos aviones avanzados de puestos de pilotaje de cristal a dominar sistemas automatizados y a detectar y mitigar riesgos operacionales. Implementacin de recomendaciones de seguridad mediante la creacin de normas de capacitacin de la FAA y la industria Plan de capacitacin modelo para la transicin a aeronaves tcnicamente avanzadas (TAA)

    8. Base de datos de seguridad directa Base de datos en Internet para ayudar a los pilotos e instructores de vuelo a obtener informacin sobre la aviacin general Publicaciones y productos sobre seguridad Normas de seguridad Normas tcnicas Clnicas y seminarios de seguridad

    10. Difusin automtica de informacin de trfico y vuelo a pequeas aeronaves Sistema de vigilancia que difunde continuamente informacin a todas las pequeas aeronaves e instalaciones de control de trfico areo (ADS-B y FIS-B) Objetivo mejorar la conciencia de los pilotos acerca de las situaciones y dar a los controladores un panorama ms completo del trfico Informacin sobre trfico areo (ADS-B) Visualizacin de las condiciones meteorolgicas para aeronaves de la aviacin general (FIS-B) Radar NEXRAD en tiempo real, informes y pronsticos meteorolgicos, alertas de cizallamiento del viento, SIGMETS y AIRMETS Restricciones temporarias de vuelo, NOTAMS

    11. Iniciativas de la DGAC Mexico para reducir accidentes de la aviacin general Seleccin de extractos

    12. PRINCIPALES CAUSAS ACCIDENTES AVIACIN GENERAL MEXICANA

    33. Iniciativas de Transport Canada para reducir accidentes de la aviacin general Seleccin de extractos

    34. Principios operativos Fomentar un compromiso comn con la seguridad Utilizar la gestin de riesgos en la toma de decisiones Delegar autoridad a las partes responsables Facilitar la comunicacin abierta y el intercambio de informacin Celebrar consultas durante el establecimiento de reglas Promover mejoras continuas Safety improvement programs for the general aviation sector in Canada are founded on several important operating principles set out in the Civil Aviation Program Charter. Among these are: Promoting a shared commitment with the aviation community to enhancing aviation safety in Canada and internationally; Using risk management techniques and policies in our decision-making; Delegating authority to responsible persons and organizations; Maintaining open communications and sharing information; Consulting early and throughout the rule-making process; and Creating an environment that fosters continuous improvement.Safety improvement programs for the general aviation sector in Canada are founded on several important operating principles set out in the Civil Aviation Program Charter. Among these are: Promoting a shared commitment with the aviation community to enhancing aviation safety in Canada and internationally; Using risk management techniques and policies in our decision-making; Delegating authority to responsible persons and organizations; Maintaining open communications and sharing information; Consulting early and throughout the rule-making process; and Creating an environment that fosters continuous improvement.

    35. Programas estratgicos de seguridad (permanentes) Instruccin de vuelo Cursos integrados de formacin de pilotos Programa de pruebas en vuelo Certificacin de escuelas de vuelo Competencias de instructores de vuelo

    36. Programas estratgicos de seguridad (continuacin) Aviacin recreativa Reglamentacin de aviones ultraligeros Aviones ultraligeros avanzados Nueva habilitacin de transporte de pasajeros para el permiso de piloto de aviones ultraligeros

    37. Programas estratgicos de seguridad (continuacin) Seguridad de los espectculos areos Conjunto comn de reglas de seguridad Concertacin con la industria Seguridad de las aeronaves no tripuladas Certificado de explotacin Consideraciones relativas a la seguridad Armonizacin

    38. Iniciativas de seguridad dirigidas Estudio sobre la seguridad de los aviones ultraligeros Evaluacin de los riesgos de las operaciones de aviones ultraligeros Programas de seguridad de la aviacin recreativa

    39. Iniciativas de seguridad de la aviacin civil Utilizacin de la evaluacin de riesgos en la toma de decisiones Introduccin de sistemas de gestin de la seguridad

    40. Pruebas en vuelo La mayor parte de los accidentes son provocados por errores relacionados con la pericia Nuevas normas para pruebas en vuelo en 2005 Mejora de las definiciones de las tareas, criterios de rendimiento Nueva escala de puntuacin (1 4) para medir la excelencia, en lugar de simplemente superar o no la prueba Escala comn de puntuacin para todas las pruebas en vuelo de pilotos

    41. Certificacin de escuelas de vuelo Todas las escuelas de vuelo para aviones / helicpteros necesitan certificado de explotacin Los datos sobre las escuelas de vuelo se mantienen en el Sistema Nacional de Informacin sobre las Compaas de Aviacin (NACIS) Auditoras peridicas Organizaciones de capacitacin para las habilitaciones de tipo (TRTO)

    42. Instructores La mayora de los accidentes se producen por errores de pericia. Introduccin de perodos de prctica para las primeras 100 horas de experiencia del instructor. Perodos de prcticas tambin para la transicin a la Clase 1. Se necesitan mejoras en el control de las operaciones y la supervisin de los instructores. Los niveles de experiencia de los instructores son bajos; se necesita mayor orientacin y direccin. Internship model will be introduced when the Class 4 instructor rating is eliminated. Likely in 2006.Internship model will be introduced when the Class 4 instructor rating is eliminated. Likely in 2006.

    43. Primeras 100 horas de experiencia del instructor Sesiones de informacin sobre las prcticas Evaluacin de las competencias del instructor Certificacin del registro personal Examen de la capacitacin del estudiante en prcticas Certificacin de la finalizacin de las prcticas Mantenimiento de un registro Prcticas para instructores After obtaining a flight instructor rating, the first 100 hours of flight experience will be managed as an internship or apprenticeship. Training is done under the supervision of a more experienced instructor at a Class 1 or 2 level. The intern is briefed by the supervisor on the requirements of the internship. Competencies must be assessed and documented. These include competencies in (a) the planning, organization and presentation of ground school lessons, preparatory ground instruction, pre- flight briefings and post-flight de-briefings; (b) the accuracy and quality of the pilot training records of each of the Class 3 Flight Instructor Interns students; and (c) the interns flight instructional abilities by means of monitoring instructional flights, mutual flying or flight progress check. The instructors personal log will be certified by the supervisor stating that the intern is considered competent to authorize first solo flights, first solo cross-country flights and make flight test recommendations. The supervisor will (a) review and approve the interns proposed training plan for each student to ensure conformity with the Flight Training Manual and Flight Instructor Guide; (b) review the pilot training record for each student undergoing training by the intern at the time of each scheduled flight progress check; (c) conduct progress checks at specified intervals, which shall be at least once before the first solo flight, first solo cross-country, and once before the flight test for issue of the pilot licence; and (d) review, approve and countersign student pilot training records for each first solo flight and first solo cross-country flight authorized and for each flight test recommended by the intern. After obtaining a flight instructor rating, the first 100 hours of flight experience will be managed as an internship or apprenticeship. Training is done under the supervision of a more experienced instructor at a Class 1 or 2 level. The intern is briefed by the supervisor on the requirements of the internship. Competencies must be assessed and documented. These include competencies in (a) the planning, organization and presentation of ground school lessons, preparatory ground instruction, pre- flight briefings and post-flight de-briefings; (b) the accuracy and quality of the pilot training records of each of the Class 3 Flight Instructor Interns students; and (c) the interns flight instructional abilities by means of monitoring instructional flights, mutual flying or flight progress check. The instructors personal log will be certified by the supervisor stating that the intern is considered competent to authorize first solo flights, first solo cross-country flights and make flight test recommendations. The supervisor will (a) review and approve the interns proposed training plan for each student to ensure conformity with the Flight Training Manual and Flight Instructor Guide; (b) review the pilot training record for each student undergoing training by the intern at the time of each scheduled flight progress check; (c) conduct progress checks at specified intervals, which shall be at least once before the first solo flight, first solo cross-country, and once before the flight test for issue of the pilot licence; and (d) review, approve and countersign student pilot training records for each first solo flight and first solo cross-country flight authorized and for each flight test recommended by the intern.

    44. Reglamentacin de los aviones ultraligeros Evolucin hacia reglamentos formales 1991 - Poltica relativa a los aviones ultraligeros y Poltica provisional relativa a los aviones ultraligeros avanzados 1996 - Estrategia de transicin relativa a los aviones ultraligeros 2000 - Aprobacin de la reglamentacin Matrcula de aviones ultraligeros y otorgamiento de licencia de piloto The implementation of the Canadian Aviation Regulations in 1996 resulted in the regulatory references, authorizations and exemptions found in the 1991Ultra-light Aeroplane Policy and the Interim Policy for Advanced Ultra-light Aeroplanes to no longer be applicable. As a regulatory bridge to ensure owners and operators of basic and advanced ultra-light aeroplanes continued with the privileges afforded to them under the original policy, the Ultra-light Aeroplane Transition Strategy was published in October 1996. A new set of regulations were approved in 2000, and work is continuing to have the regulations incorporated into the CARs. Transport Canada has regulations in place to help ensure that ultra-light pilots have the basic knowledge, experience and skill required to safely operate ultra-light aeroplanes. Transport Canada requires that ultra-light pilots be trained and licensed, and that aircraft be registered. Pilots must also abide by all visual flight rules (VFR) including VFR weather minima. The implementation of the Canadian Aviation Regulations in 1996 resulted in the regulatory references, authorizations and exemptions found in the 1991Ultra-light Aeroplane Policy and the Interim Policy for Advanced Ultra-light Aeroplanes to no longer be applicable. As a regulatory bridge to ensure owners and operators of basic and advanced ultra-light aeroplanes continued with the privileges afforded to them under the original policy, the Ultra-light Aeroplane Transition Strategy was published in October 1996. A new set of regulations were approved in 2000, and work is continuing to have the regulations incorporated into the CARs. Transport Canada has regulations in place to help ensure that ultra-light pilots have the basic knowledge, experience and skill required to safely operate ultra-light aeroplanes. Transport Canada requires that ultra-light pilots be trained and licensed, and that aircraft be registered. Pilots must also abide by all visual flight rules (VFR) including VFR weather minima.

    45. Aviones ultraligeros avanzados Se introdujo en 1991 para reflejar los progresos realizados en el diseo, construccin y rendimiento de los aviones. Los aviones deben cumplir con las normas de diseo establecidas por la industria. Los aviones pueden transportar un pasajero. The advanced ultra-light aeroplane program was introduced in 1991 to reflect the progress made in aeroplane design, construction and performance. Advanced ultra-light aeroplanes are required to meet Industry developed design standards; be maintained in accordance with a manufacturers maintenance program; and cannot be modified without the manufacturers approval. Transport Canada publishes a list of those aircraft models for which manufacturers have demonstrated that their maintenance and design standards for the aircrafts meet the requirements to be considered for registration as Advanced Ultra-light Aeroplanes. Advanced ultra-light aeroplanes are eligible to carry one passenger providing the pilot obtains a recreational pilot permit or higher. Advanced ultra-light aeroplanes are also restricted to two seats and a maximum stall speed of 39 knots (45 mph), but have a maximum takeoff weight of 560 kgs (1232 lbs.). (With basic ultra-light aeroplanes, there are no design, construction or maintenance standards for basic ultra-light aeroplanes. The aeroplane must not exceed a maximum takeoff weight of 544 kgs. (1200 lbs.), a maximum stall speed of 39 knots (45 mph) and contain a maximum of two seats.) Advanced ultra-light aeroplanes do not require a Transport Canada flight authority or certificate of airworthiness. . The advanced ultra-light aeroplane program was introduced in 1991 to reflect the progress made in aeroplane design, construction and performance. Advanced ultra-light aeroplanes are required to meet Industry developed design standards; be maintained in accordance with a manufacturers maintenance program; and cannot be modified without the manufacturers approval. Transport Canada publishes a list of those aircraft models for which manufacturers have demonstrated that their maintenance and design standards for the aircrafts meet the requirements to be considered for registration as Advanced Ultra-light Aeroplanes. Advanced ultra-light aeroplanes are eligible to carry one passenger providing the pilot obtains a recreational pilot permit or higher. Advanced ultra-light aeroplanes are also restricted to two seats and a maximum stall speed of 39 knots (45 mph), but have a maximum takeoff weight of 560 kgs (1232 lbs.). (With basic ultra-light aeroplanes, there are no design, construction or maintenance standards for basic ultra-light aeroplanes. The aeroplane must not exceed a maximum takeoff weight of 544 kgs. (1200 lbs.), a maximum stall speed of 39 knots (45 mph) and contain a maximum of two seats.) Advanced ultra-light aeroplanes do not require a Transport Canada flight authority or certificate of airworthiness. .

    46. Aviones ultraligeros Los aviones ultraligeros representan el mayor grupo de aeronaves sin certificado de tipo que operan en Canad. Los aviones ultraligeros han sido objeto de dos estudios detallados de accidentes, uno en 1999 y otro en 2004.

    47. Implementacin de las conclusiones del estudio de 1999 La mayora de los accidentes se deben a errores de manipulacin. Medidas adoptadas para responder a este factor de accidentes: aumento a 20 horas de las exigencias de instruccin en tierra; los temas abordados en las escuelas de instruccin en tierra son ms coherentes con los requisitos exigidos para otras licencias de piloto; introduccin de una prueba en vuelo para los instructores de vuelo; nueva posibilidad de impartir la instruccin en aviones ultraligeros; programas de seguridad proactivos. In order to address this accident factor associated with approximately 2/3 of the ultra-light aeroplane accidents, measures have been taken to improve the calibre of training provided to ultra-light aeroplane pilots, namely: Increasing Ground School requirements for ultra-light aeroplane pilots to a minimum of 20 hours from the presently unspecified number of hours; Specifying ground school subjects to be more consistent with the requirements for other pilot licences; Introducing a flight test to measure pilot skills for ultra-light aeroplane flight instructors; Clearly specifying the pilot skills required for ultra-light pilots to qualify to carry a passenger Making it possible for the advanced training required for ultra-light pilots to carry a passenger to be completed in ultra-light aeroplanes (rather than continue to require the training to take place in aircraft with, at times, markedly different handling characteristics). Pro-active safety programs.In order to address this accident factor associated with approximately 2/3 of the ultra-light aeroplane accidents, measures have been taken to improve the calibre of training provided to ultra-light aeroplane pilots, namely: Increasing Ground School requirements for ultra-light aeroplane pilots to a minimum of 20 hours from the presently unspecified number of hours; Specifying ground school subjects to be more consistent with the requirements for other pilot licences; Introducing a flight test to measure pilot skills for ultra-light aeroplane flight instructors; Clearly specifying the pilot skills required for ultra-light pilots to qualify to carry a passenger Making it possible for the advanced training required for ultra-light pilots to carry a passenger to be completed in ultra-light aeroplanes (rather than continue to require the training to take place in aircraft with, at times, markedly different handling characteristics). Pro-active safety programs.

    48. Accidentes de aviones ultraligeros

    49. Opciones recomendadas de la evaluacin de riesgos de los ultraligeros Opcin 1: Fortalecer las medidas reglamentarias Opcin 2: Aumentar la delegacin de responsabilidades y la participacin en la rendicin de cuentas con la comunidad de ultraligeros Opcin 3: Elaborar un programa estructurado de educacin y promocin de la seguridad Opcin 4: Status quo During the Risk Assessment exercise, the above options were considered and assessed against these criteria: Protection of life, health, the environment and property Promoting stakeholder satisfaction and the principles of shared commitment and partnership with the aviation community Promotion of efficient use of Transport Canadas human and financial resources Consistency with the approach used for the safety oversight of other aviation segments Promotion of public confidence in the safety and security of our transportation system Promotion of economic efficiency, accessibility and sustainability of the national transportation system. The risk assessment team recognised that a programme (in place to varying degrees in regions across Canada since 1996) can be linked to reduction in the accident rate. The programme involved: Inspection and monitoring of ultra-light activities Safety promotion and education Working through partnerships with the ultra-light community, especially leveraging flight instructorsDuring the Risk Assessment exercise, the above options were considered and assessed against these criteria: Protection of life, health, the environment and property Promoting stakeholder satisfaction and the principles of shared commitment and partnership with the aviation community Promotion of efficient use of Transport Canadas human and financial resources Consistency with the approach used for the safety oversight of other aviation segments Promotion of public confidence in the safety and security of our transportation system Promotion of economic efficiency, accessibility and sustainability of the national transportation system. The risk assessment team recognised that a programme (in place to varying degrees in regions across Canada since 1996) can be linked to reduction in the accident rate. The programme involved: Inspection and monitoring of ultra-light activities Safety promotion and education Working through partnerships with the ultra-light community, especially leveraging flight instructors

    50. Decisin tomada tras el estudio de evaluacin de riesgos de los ultraligeros Una combinacin de las opciones 2 y 3 ofrecer la mejor respuesta a los problemas. Estudiar la posibilidad de una mayor delegacin de responsabilidades con la industria Fortalecer la capacidad de la industria para orientar y educar Elaborar e implementar programas orientados de educacin y capacitacin Increased Delegation/Shared Accountability A regulatory regime needs to be established, for the safety oversight of recreational aviation, that recognizes and accepts (where possible) industry-developed and administered programs for improving safety. Long-term dividends could be considerable if various organizations of Canadas recreational aviation community are able to move into this regime. Partnering with recreational aviation organizations to develop and deliver safety awareness and educational programs: - Rust Remover sessions - Recurrent Training programs - Instructor Refresher courses Safety promotion and Educational programs Development of air and ground syllabi to support training for ultra-light aeroplanes. Increased Delegation/Shared Accountability A regulatory regime needs to be established, for the safety oversight of recreational aviation, that recognizes and accepts (where possible) industry-developed and administered programs for improving safety. Long-term dividends could be considerable if various organizations of Canadas recreational aviation community are able to move into this regime. Partnering with recreational aviation organizations to develop and deliver safety awareness and educational programs: - Rust Remover sessions - Recurrent Training programs - Instructor Refresher courses Safety promotion and Educational programs Development of air and ground syllabi to support training for ultra-light aeroplanes.

    51. Iniciativas de la industria Manual de mejores prcticas para unidades de instruccin de vuelo Asociacin de Transporte Areo de Canad anlisis de accidentes/incidentes con evaluacin de riesgos Sesin de reciclaje Asociacin de Pilotos y Propietarios Canadienses

    52. Gestin de riesgos Capacitacin de todos los inspectores en gestin de riesgos Utilizacin de evaluaciones de riesgos para: Cambios reglamentarios Exenciones de las exigencias reglamentarias Requisitos de explotacin para Operaciones Areas Especializadas Elaboracin de directrices polticas y funcionales Transport Canada has committed to using a data driven approach to its decision making activities. This approach relies heavily on Risk Management principles, and Transport Canada has developed a Risk Management procedure that is based on the Canadian Standards Association Q850 program and that is specially tailored to the aviation environment. We are committed to the application of this Risk Management process when considering changes to regulatory requirements and in situations where exemptions to certain regulatory requirements are appropriate. Special Flight Operations are a group of aviation activities including air shows, aerobatic competitions, unmanned air vehicles and other similar activities. Risk Management procedures are used to identify the operating requirements, conditions, restrictions and opportunities that become part of the Operating Certificates required for these activities.Transport Canada has committed to using a data driven approach to its decision making activities. This approach relies heavily on Risk Management principles, and Transport Canada has developed a Risk Management procedure that is based on the Canadian Standards Association Q850 program and that is specially tailored to the aviation environment. We are committed to the application of this Risk Management process when considering changes to regulatory requirements and in situations where exemptions to certain regulatory requirements are appropriate. Special Flight Operations are a group of aviation activities including air shows, aerobatic competitions, unmanned air vehicles and other similar activities. Risk Management procedures are used to identify the operating requirements, conditions, restrictions and opportunities that become part of the Operating Certificates required for these activities.

    53. Sistemas de gestin de la seguridad (SGS) Gua de SGS Juego de herramientas de SGS

    54. PREGUNTAS?