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Impressionism. The movement has its roots in: Romanticism (feelings and emotions) AND the Realists (challenging the academies) The term is coined from a Monet painting titled, Impression: Sunrise

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Impressionism1

The movement has its roots in: Romanticism (feelings and emotions) AND the Realists (challenging the academies)

The term is coined from a Monet painting titled, Impression: Sunrise

The Impressionists exhibited together at eight shows between 1874 and 1886 (this does not mean they were always in complete agreement with each other!)

Impressionism


Painting captures an impression—a moment emotions) AND the Realists (challenging the academies)

Brushwork: short and choppy

The effects of light on color! Plein Air (painting outside)

Limited use of black paint—Shadows created with dark green, blue, purple, and brown

Juxtaposition of complementary colors to create vibrancy

Creative, cropped compositions with unusual angles

For most, the Parisian middle class--bourgeoisie

Impressionists: What they have in Common


Originally used for the French military—the units that advanced further from the troops

In art, those that led the way with bold concepts and works— “Ahead of the mainstream”

Generally, they were misunderstood by the public and rejected by the salons

When a style becomes mainstream (Impressionism does in the 1890s), it’s no longer considered avant-garde

The Avant-Garde


Claude monet impression sunrise 1872 oil on canvas 1 7 1 2 x 2 1 1 2 mus e marmottan paris
CLAUDE MONET, advanced further from the troopsImpression: Sunrise, 1872*. Oil on canvas, 1’ 7 1/2” x 2’ 1 1/2”. Musée Marmottan, Paris.


At 19, moves to Paris but rejects the conventional training of the Ecole des Beaux Arts, instead choosing the more relaxed private schools

His wealthy family cuts him off, his wife dies and leaves him with two children, so he moves to Giverny

In 1890, he buys property in Giverny and employs six gardeners

Towards the end of his life, lives like a recluse with extremely failing eyesight

Monet


CLAUDE MONET, of the Ecole des Beaux Arts, instead choosing the more relaxed private schoolsRouen Cathedral: The Portal (in Sun), 1894*. Oil on canvas, 3’ 3 1/4” x 2’ 1 7/8”. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York


CLAUDE MONET, of the Ecole des Beaux Arts, instead choosing the more relaxed private schoolsSaint-Lazare Train Station, 1877*. Oil on canvas, 2’ 5 3/4” x 3’ 5”. Musée d’Orsay, Paris. (Industrialization )


GUSTAVE CAILLEBOTTE, of the Ecole des Beaux Arts, instead choosing the more relaxed private schoolsParis: A Rainy Day, 1877*. Oil on canvas, 6’ 9” x 9’ 9”. The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago


Wealthy engineer and boat builder who befriends the Impressionists

Helped to finance Impressionist exhibitions and collected more than 60 pieces of their work—these were left to the French people when he died

Although not with loose brushwork, subject matter and composition make it an Impressionist work

Caillebotte


Pierre auguste renoir le moulin de la galette 1876 oil on canvas 4 3 x 5 8 mus e d orsay paris
PIERRE-AUGUSTE RENOIR, ImpressionistsLe Moulin de la Galette, 1876*. Oil on canvas, 4’ 3” x 5’ 8”. Musée d’Orsay, Paris.


Most famous for genre paintings of the bourgeoisie of Paris (females)

Friends with Monet

Used the model, Suzanne Valadon in paintings

In 1892, developed severe rheumatoid arthritis but continued to paint for over twenty years

RENOIR


ÉDOUARD MANET, (females)Bar at the Folies-Bergère, 1882*. Oil on canvas, 3’ 1” x 4’ 3”. Courtauld Institute of Art Gallery, London.


Influences Impressionism and in turn, they influence him (females)

Never exhibited with the Impressionists

His style is hard to pinpoint (Realism? Impressionism?)

Died at age 51, after complications due to syphilis and arthritis

MANET WITH IMPRESSIONISM


Focused on the female like Renoir (females)

Classically trained (outstanding draughtsman). Considered an Impressionist but rejected the term for “realist” instead

Known for interior scenes—not “plein air” and did not adopt the same brushwork

Although his works looks “spontaneous”, he produced MANY sketches beforehand but photography also affects his composition

Later, his compositions adopt a “peering through a keyhole” approach and are influenced by Japanese woodblock prints

DEGAS


Edgar degas ballet rehearsal 1874 oil on canvas 1 11 x 2 9 glasgow art galleries and museum glasgow
EDGAR DEGAS, (females)Ballet Rehearsal, 1874*. Oil on canvas, 1’ 11” x 2’ 9”. Glasgow Art Galleries and Museum, Glasgow


Degas, (females)The Rehearsal on Stage, c.1874*, pastel over brush and ink

Metropolitan Museum of Art


American (studied in Philadelphia), ex-patriot in Paris (females)

Degas encouraged her to participate in the 4th Impressionist exhibition

Both Degas and Cassatt did not paint “en plein air”—focused on the domestic and social life of wealthy women

Influenced by Degas and Japanese prints

WOMEN ARTISTS DURING IMPRESSIONISM


Mary cassatt the bath ca 1892 oil on canvas 3 3 x 2 2 the art institute of chicago chicago
MARY CASSATT, (females)The Bath, ca. 1892*. Oil on canvas, 3’ 3” x 2’ 2”. The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago


Mary Cassatt (females)

Maternal Caress

1891*

Drypoint, soft-ground etching, and aquatint on paper


Married to Eduoard Manet’s brother (females)

Exhibited with the Impressionists

Focused on outdoor leisure of Parisian middle-class (weekends to resorts at sea or the Seine)—with a sense of melancholy

Most paintings contain a main female figure, loose brushwork, natural light and color

Morisot


BERTHE MORISOT, (females)Villa at the Seaside, 1874*. Oil on canvas, 1’ 7 3/4” x 2’ 1/8". Norton Simon Art Foundation, Los Angeles.


Japonisme
Japonisme (females)


In 1850, Japan opens itself to trade with the west (females)

Culture captivates Parisians: Japonisme

A large exhibition of Japanese wood-block prints in 1890 influences ENORMOUSLY!

Ukiyo-e— “floating world”

These prints are inexpensive and many Impressionists collected them

Japanese Wood-block Prints


Hokusai, (females)The Great Wave off Kanagawa, ca. 1826-1833


Left: (females)EDGAR DEGAS, The Tub, 1886. Pastel, 1’ 11 ½” X 2’ 8 3/8”. Musee d’Orsay, Paris. Right: TORII KIYONAGA, detail of Two Women at the Bath, ca. 1780. Color woodblock, full print 10 ½” X 7 ½”, detail 3 ¾” X 3 ½”. Musee Guimet, Paris.



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