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Chapter 12. Goal Setting. Learning Objectives (part 1 of 2). Recognize how goal setting can be used as part of OD program. Apply major findings of research on goal setting to develop organizational and personal goals. Learning Objectives (part 2 of 2).

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chapter 12

Chapter 12

Goal Setting

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

learning objectives part 1 of 2
Learning Objectives (part 1 of 2)
  • Recognize how goal setting can be used as part of OD program.
  • Apply major findings of research on goal setting to develop organizational and personal goals.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

learning objectives part 2 of 2
Learning Objectives (part 2 of 2)
  • Understand how management by objectives (MBO) can be applied as management system.
  • Experience and practice goal-setting approaches.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

big hairy audacious goals part 1 of 2
Big Hairy Audacious Goals(part 1 of 2)

Employees at GE use “stretch goals.”

Other companies call these goals BHAG - big hairy audacious goals.

These goals stimulate everyone to shoot for extreme achievement.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

big hairy audacious goals part 2 of 2
Big Hairy Audacious Goals(part 2 of 2)

Major goal that GE is striving for is Six Sigma.

Six Sigma is statistical term for 3.4 defects per million products.

For GE to attain Six Sigma requires every employee to get on board.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

goal setting theory
Goal-Setting Theory

Goal setting may be organization-wide, department-wide, individual, or integration of the three.

A goal is anything an individual is trying to accomplish and is the object of action.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

major findings relevant to goal setting theory part 1 of 2
Major Findings Relevant to Goal-Setting Theory (part 1 of 2)
  • Difficult goals produce better performance.
  • Specific hard goals better than “do your best.”
  • People may abandon goals if too hard.
  • Participation increases commitment to goals.
  • Feedback about accomplishment improves performance.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

major findings relevant to goal setting theory part 2 of 2
Major Findings Relevant to Goal-Setting Theory (part 2 of 2)
  • Education and position in organization does not predict success.
  • Goal-setting in teams deserves special consideration.
  • Support of management is critical.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

our changing world nissan and renault s goals part 1 of 2
Our Changing World: Nissan and Renault’s Goals (part 1 of 2)

Renault of France took over troubled Nissan.

Ghosn brought in to turn Nissan around.

Ghosn had to maintain self-esteem of employees but bring change quickly.

Ghosn first assessed Nissan’s problems.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

our changing world part 2 of 2
Our Changing World (part 2 of 2)

He created cross-functional teams to study manufacturing, purchasing, and engineering.

Ghosn set ambitious and specific goals.

Ghosn set example by observing Japanese culture and working long hours.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

goal setting model part 1 of 3
Goal-Setting Model (part 1 of 3)

Difficult and specific goals are developed.

Commitment to goals achieved by:

  • Mutual trust in and by upper management.
  • Support by management.
  • Care given to competition between employees and teams.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

goal setting model part 2 of 3
Goal-Setting Model (part 2 of 3)

Overcome resistance to goals by providing:

  • Special training if required.
  • Effective reward and incentive system.
  • Participation by employees in setting goals.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

goal setting model part 3 of 3
Goal-setting Model (part 3 of 3)

Period of performance when management support and feedback is given.

Employees may require additional resources.

Managers and employees may need to develop action plans.

Managers provide timely and objective feedback.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

figure 12 1 goal setting
Figure 12.1Goal Setting

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

management by objectives mbo part 1 of 2
Management by Objectives (MBO) (part 1 of 2)

MBO is a specific technique for setting goals.

Aimed at integration of individual and organization goals.

A system to help in planning, organizing, problem-solving, and motivating.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

management by objectives mbo part 2 of 2
Management by Objectives (MBO) (part 2 of 2)

MBO involves participation of subordinates and their managers in setting and clarifying goals for subordinates.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

how mbo works
How MBO Works

Jointly identify common goals.

Define major areas of responsibility in terms of results expected.

Use measurements as guides for operating and assessing contributions of members.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

underlying purposes of mbo
Underlying Purposes of MBO
  • Clarify organization’s goals and plans at all levels.
  • Gain better motivation and participation from organization’s members.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

phases of mbo
Phases of MBO

Top management team studies system.

Team sets up methods of measuring performance.

Goal-setting sessions are held at all levels of organization.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

steps in mbo process part 1 of 2
Steps in MBO Process (part 1 of 2)
  • Subordinate proposes specific goals and ways to measure them for designated time period.
  • Subordinate and superior jointly develop mutually agreed upon goals.
  • Period of performance.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

steps in mbo process part 2 of 2
Steps in MBO Process (part 2 of 2)
  • Feedback of results with comparison between actual performance and goals.
  • Previous step sets stage for recycling of goal-setting process.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

figure 12 2 steps in the mbo process
Figure 12.2Steps in the MBO Process

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

od in practice boehringer mannheim and mbo part 1 of 4
OD in Practice: Boehringer Mannheim and MBO (part 1 of 4)

BM set up nontraditional MBO program.

Focused on having every key professional specify how much an employee will contribute to next year’s profits.

Program was phased in over two years.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

od in practice part 2 of 4
OD in Practice (part 2 of 4)

MBO began with a two-day training session.

  • Conducted by external consultant.
  • Attended by management including CEO.

Employees formulate objectives for year’s budget.

Supervisor reviews performance at quarterly intervals.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

od in practice part 3 of 4
OD in Practice (part 3 of 4)

BM’s program calculates dollar value of objectives.

BM uses “stretch” objectives with cash bonus.

Emphasis on results, teamwork, growth in entrepreneurs, and greater contribution.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

od in practice part 4 of 4
OD in Practice (part 4 of 4)

BM traces their success with MBO to:

  • Implementing MBO the right way.
  • Tying MBO to company strategy.
  • Establishing financial perspective to MBO.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

criticisms of mbo part 1 of 2
Criticisms of MBO (part 1 of 2)

Implementing MBO is expensive and time-consuming.

Traditionally limited to managerial and professional employees where costs can be justified.

Joint goal-setting among unequals difficult and may not be possible.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

criticisms of mbo part 2 of 2
Criticisms of MBO (part 2 of 2)

MBO may be too quantitative.

Areas that cannot be quantified may be ignored.

MBO may be implemented as top dictating to bottom.

Some OD practitioners question if MBO is OD intervention.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

results of mbo
Results of MBO

Difficult to measure success of MBO.

Trend of findings is generally favorable.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

key words and concepts
Key Words and Concepts
  • Goal - what individual is trying to accomplish and object of action.
  • Goal setting - specifies desired outcomes toward which individuals, teams, and organization should work.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

slide31
Management by objectives (MBO) - system of management set up to help in planning, organizing, problem solving, and motivating.
  • Six sigma - a statistical term for 3.4 defects per million products.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

slide32
Stretch goals - encouraging employee teams to try for huge gains in productivity and quality even though it is unclear how they will get there.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition

preparations for next chapter
Preparations for Next Chapter
  • Read Chapter 13.
  • Complete Step 1 of OD Skills Simulation 13.1.
  • Complete Step 1 of OD Skills Simulation 13.2.
  • Read and analyze Case: Wengart Aircraft.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition